Metabolism EXAM 2

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misol
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243023
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Metabolism EXAM 2
Updated:
2013-10-26 22:38:07
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biology exam
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biology exam 2
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  1. cellular respiration
    • Cellular respiration makes ATP and consumes O2
    • breaking down molecules (glucose) for energy
  2. cellular respiration equation
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energyyy
  3. metabolic pathway in cellular respiration
    • 1.Glycolysis
    • 2.Breakdownof pyruvate to an acetyl group
    • 3.Citric acid cycle
    • 4.Oxidative phosphorylation
  4. what is reduced and oxidized in cellular respiration
    • O2 reduced to H2O
    • C6H12O6 oxidized to 6CO2
  5. steps in glycolysis
    • 1.Energy investment - use 2 atp (and glucose)
    • 2.Cleavage - glucose into 2 3 carbon molecules
    • 3.Energy liberation - 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4 ATP
  6. enzymes of glycolysis
    • Hexokinase
    • Phosphoglucose Isomerase
    • Phosphofructokinase
    • Aldolase
    • Triose Phosphate Isomerase
    • Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
    • Phosphoglycerate Kinase
    • Phosphoglyceromutase
    • Enolase 
    • Pyruvate Kinase
  7. Breakdown of Pyruvate (Preparatory Step)
    • in MATRIX
    • CO2 removed (released)
    • turned into acytl coA
    • 1 NADH produced

    *this is for each pyruvate
  8. locations
    • glycolosis - cytoplasm
    • prep phase - matrix 
    • kreb cycle - matrix
    • ETC - inner cristae
  9. Citric Acid/Krebs Cycle
    • Acetyl is removed from Acetyl CoA and attached to oxaloacetate to form citrate or citric acid
    • releases 2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2

    ** this is for each acytl coA
  10. Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETC)
    • requires oxygen
    • Can accept and donate electrons 
    • Movement of electrons generates H+ electrochemical gradien
    • Excess of positive charges outside of matrix
  11. how many ATP made from NADH and FADH2
    • NADH = 3 ATP
    • FADH2 = 2 ATP
  12. phosphorylation: ATP synthase
    • H+ on outside can only pass through ATP synthase, energy is harnessed to make ATP
    • (spins and joins P to ADP)

    (Chemiosmosis)
  13. ETC oxidation equation
    NADH > NAD+ + H+ + 2e-
  14. ETC reduction equation
    • 2e- + 2H+ + 1/2 O2 > H2O
    • oxygen is last electron acceptor
  15. anaerobic metabolism
    Produce ATP only via substrate-level phosphorylation
  16. fermentation
    only via glycolysis

    • Muscle cells produce lactate (lactic acid)
    • Yeast make ethanol
  17. secondary metabolism
    • Primary metabolism- essential for cell structure and function
    • Secondary metabolism- synthesis of secondary metabolites that are not necessary for cell structure and growth
    • Roles in defense, attraction, protection, competition

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