cells are the basic _______ and _________ units of life
the activity of an _________ depends on the activities of its _________.
the _________ activities of a cell are dictated by their ________.
the continuity of life has a _________ _________.
cells vary greatly in their _________, _________ and _________.
size, shape and function
All cells are composed of _________, _________, _________, and _________
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
all cells have the same basic _________ and some common _________.
a generalized human cell contains the _________ _________, the _________, and the _________.
plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus
the plasma membrane is composed of a _________ layer of _________ in which small amounts of _________ and _________ are embedded.
double; phospholipids; cholesterol and proteins
the phospolipid bilayer is composed of _________ layers of _________ lying _________ to _________,with their _________ heads exposed to water inside and outside the cell.
two; phospholipids; tail to tail; polar
_________ are found only in the outer membrane
_________ _________ are also found only the _________ membrane, and are assumed to function to cell _________.
lipid rafts; outer; signaling.
_________ proteins are firmly inserted into the _________ membrane
most intergal proteins are _________ proteins that span the entire width of the membrane and are involved with transport as _________ or _________.
transmembrane; channels or carriers
_________ proteins are not embedded in the plasma membrane, but attach to intergral proteins or to phospholipids
peripheral proteins may function as _________ or in _________ functions of the cell
enzymes or in mechanical
the _________ is the fuzzy, sticky, carbonhydrate-rich area surrounding the cell.
_________ _________ are the type of membrane junction in which integral proteins on adjacent cells fuse together to form an impermeable junction in order to prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space through cells
_________ are mechanical couplings that are scattered along the sides of adjoining cells that prevent their separation and reduce the chance of tearing when a tissue is stressed
_________ _________ are communication junction between cells that allows substances to pass between adjacent cells
_________ processes do not use energy (ATP) to move substances down their concentration gradient
_________ is the movement of molecules down their concentration gradient
in _________ diffusion substances are moved through the plasma membrane by binding to protein carriers in the membrane or by moving through channels
_________ is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
_________ transport processes use energy (ATP) to move substances across the membrane
active transport uses _________ _________ to move substances against a concentration gradient
_________ transport is the means by which largy particles, macromolecules, and fluids are transported across the plasma membrane, or within the cell
_________ is the process used to move substances from inside the cell to the extracellular enviroment
_________, _________, and _________ trafficking are vesicular transport processes that move molecules using protein-coated vesicles
endocytosis, transcytosis, and vesicular
the _________ is the cellular material between the cell membrane and the nucleus, and is the site of most cellular activity
What are the three major elements of the cytoplasm?
cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles and cytoplasmic inclusions
_________ are sausage-shaped membranous organelles that are the power plants of the cells, producing mosts its ATP
_________ are small staining granules consisting of protein and ribosomal RNA that are the site of protein synthesis
the _________ _________ is an extensive system of tubes and membranes enclosing fluid-filled cavities, called cisternae, that extend throughout the cytosol
the _________ ER has ribosomes that manufacture all proteins that are secreted from cells
_________ ER is a continuation of rough ER, consisting of a looping network of tubules.
the _________ _________ is a series of stacked, flattened, membranous sacs associated with
_________are sausage-shaped membranous organelles that are the power plants of the cell, producing most of its ATP.
Ribosomes are small staining granules consisting of protein and ribosomal RNA that are the site of protein synthesis.
The endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive system of tubes and membranes enclosing fluid-filled cavities, called cisternae, that extend throughout the cytosol.
The ______ endoplasmic reticulum has ______ that manufacture all proteins that are secreted from cells.
______ is a continuation of rough ER, consisting of a looping network of tubules. Its enzymes catalyze reactions involved in several processes.
The ______ _______ is a series of stacked, flattened, membranous sacs associated with groups of membranous vesicles.
What's the main function of the Golgi apparatus?
modify, concentrate, and package the proteins and lipids made at the rough ER.
The Golgi apparatus creates _______ containing lipids and transmembrane proteins for incorporation into the cell membrane.
The Golgi apparatus packages _______ enzymes into lysosomes.
________ are spherical membranous organelles that contain digestive enzymes.
_______ are membranous sacs containing enzymes, such as oxidases and catalases, which are used to detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol, formaldehyde, and free radicals.
The _________ is a series of rods running through the cytosol, supporting cellular structures and aiding in cell movement.
What are the three types of rods in the cytoskeleton?
microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
The __________ is a region near the nucleus in which a group of microtubules is anchored.
The centrosome functions as a microtubule organizing center, and forms the mitotic spindle during cell division.
Centrioles are small, barrel-shaped organelles associated with the centrosome, and also form the bases of cilia and flagella.
_______ are whiplike, motile cellular extensions on the exposed surfaces of some cells.
_________ are long cellular projections that move the cell through the environment.
_________ are fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface area.
The ______ is the control center of the cell and contains the cellular DNA.
The ______ _______ is a double-membrane barrier surrounding the nucleus.
_______ are dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus.
_______ is roughly half DNA, the genetic material of the cell, and half histone proteins.
When a cell is preparing to divide, chromatin condenses into dense, rodlike chromosomes.
The _________ is a series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed to the time it reproduces.
cell life cycle
What are the two main periods of the cell cycle?
Interphase and cell division
________ is a process necessary for growth and tissue repair.
_______ is the process of nuclear division in which cells contain all genes.
_______ is the process of nuclear division found only in egg and sperm cells in which the cells have half the genes found in other body cells.
___________ is the process of dividing the cytoplasm.
What are the two main steps of protein synthesis?
transcription and translation.
_____________ is the process of transferring information from a genes base sequence to a complementary mRNA molecule.
___________ is the process of converting the language of nucleic acids (nucleotides) to the language of proteins (amino acids).
Extracellular matrix is a jellylike substance consisting of proteins and polysaccharides.
Tissue specimens must be fixed (preserved) and sectioned (sliced) thinly enough to allow light transmission.
Tissue sections must be stained with dyes that bind to different parts of the cell in slightly different ways so that anatomical structures are distinguished from one another.
An _________ is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a cavity.
Epithelium occurs in the body as:
1. covering or lining epithelium, and as glandular epithelium.
2. Composed of closely packed cells with little extracellular material between.
3. Adjacent epithelial cells are bound together by specialized contacts such as desmosomes and tight junctions.
4. Exhibits polarity by having an apical surface (free) and a basal surface (attached).
5. Supported by the underlying connective tissue.
6. Innervated but avascular.
7. Has a high regeneration capacity.
______ epithelia are mostly concerned with absorption, secretion, and filtration.
______ ________ epithelium is a single layer of fish scaleshaped cells.
______ ________ epithelium is a single layer of cube-shaped cells forming the smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules.
______ ________ epithelium is a single layer of column-shaped cells that line the digestive tract.
________________ ________ epithelium contains cells of varying heights giving the false impression of the presence of many layers.
What's Stratified epithelias main function?
__________ ________ epithelium is composed of several layers with the cells on the free surface being squamous shaped and the underlying cells being cuboidal or columnar in shape.
__________ ________ epithelium is rare, found mostly in the ducts of some of the larger glands.
__________ ________ epithelium is found in limited distribution with small amounts in the pharynx, in the male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts.
____________ epithelium forms the lining of the hollow organs of the urinary system that stretches as they fill.
Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones by exocytosis directly into the blood or lymph.
What are the major functions of connective tissue?
binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation.
All connective tissue arises from an embryonic tissue called _________.
forms during the early weeks of embryonic development from the mesoderm layer and eventually differentiates into all other connective tissues.
________ ______ are extremely strong and provide high tensile strength to the connective tissue.
_______ ______ contain elastin, which allows them to be stretched and to recoil.
_________ ______ are fine, collagenous fibers that form networks.
_______ __________ tissue serves to bind body parts together while allowing them to move freely over one another, wraps small blood vessels and nerves, surrounds glands, and forms the subcutaneous tissue.
_____________ tissue is a richly vascularized tissue that functions in nutrient storage, protection, and insulation.
_________ __________ tissue forms the internal framework of the lymph nodes, the spleen, and the bone marrow.
Dense _______ connective tissue contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction and makes up tendons and ligaments.
Dense _________ connective tissue contains thick bundles of collagen fibers arranged in an irregular fashion, and is found in the dermis.
Cartilage lacks ______ ______ and is ________.
nerve fibers; avascular
_______ cartilage is the most abundant cartilage, providing firm support with some pliability.
_______ cartilage is found where strength and exceptional stretchability are needed, such as the external ear.
______________ is found where strong support and the ability to withstand heavy pressure are required, such as the intervertebral discs.
_____________________ has an exceptional ability to support and protect body structures due to its hardness, which is determined by the additional collagen fibers and calcium salts found in the extracellular matrix.
Bone (osseous tissue)
Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system, which regulates and controls body functions
Nervous tissue is composed of two types of cells.
Neurons are specialized cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses.
Supporting cells are nonconductive cells that support, insulate, and protect the neurons.
________ ______ attaches to the skeleton and produces voluntary body movement.
_______ ______ is responsible for the involuntary movement of the heart.
______ ______ is found in the walls of the hollow organs.
_________ membrane, or skin, is an organ system consisting of a keratinized squamous epithelium firmly attached to a thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue
______ membranes line body cavities that open to the exterior and contain either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia
______ membranes consist of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of loose connective (areolar) tissue
Tissue repair occurs in two ways: regeneration and fibrosis
What are the three steps that are involved in the tissue repair process?
1. Inflammation prepares the area for the repair process.
2. Organization restores the blood supply.
3. Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair.