Intro to A&P, exam2

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  1. cells are the basic _______ and _________ units of life
  2. the activity of an _________ depends on the activities of its _________.
    organism; cell
  3. the _________ activities of a cell are dictated by their ________.
    biochemical; organelles
  4. the continuity of life has a _________ _________.
    cellular basis.
  5. cells vary greatly in their _________, _________ and _________.
    size, shape and function
  6. All cells are composed of _________, _________, _________, and _________
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  7. all cells have the same basic _________ and some common _________.
    parts; functions
  8. a generalized human cell contains the _________ _________, the _________, and the _________.
    plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus
  9. the plasma membrane is composed of a _________ layer of _________ in which small amounts of _________ and _________ are embedded.
    double; phospholipids; cholesterol and proteins
  10. the phospolipid bilayer is composed of _________ layers of _________ lying _________ to _________,with their _________ heads exposed to water inside and outside the cell.
    two; phospholipids; tail to tail; polar
  11. _________ are found only in the outer membrane
  12. _________ _________ are also found only the _________ membrane, and are assumed to function to cell _________.
    lipid rafts; outer; signaling.
  13. _________ proteins are firmly inserted into the _________ membrane
    integral; plasma
  14. most intergal proteins are _________ proteins that span the entire width of the membrane and are involved with transport as _________ or _________.
    transmembrane; channels or carriers
  15. _________ proteins are not embedded in the plasma membrane, but attach to intergral proteins or to phospholipids
  16. peripheral proteins may function as _________ or in _________ functions of the cell
    enzymes or in mechanical
  17. the _________ is the fuzzy, sticky, carbonhydrate-rich area surrounding the cell.
  18. _________ _________ are the type of membrane junction in which integral proteins on adjacent cells fuse together to form an impermeable junction in order to prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space through cells
    tight junctions
  19. _________ are mechanical couplings that are scattered along the sides of adjoining cells that prevent their separation and reduce the chance of tearing when a tissue is stressed
  20. _________ _________ are communication junction between cells that allows substances to pass between adjacent cells
    gap junctions
  21. _________ processes do not use energy (ATP) to move substances down their concentration gradient
  22. _________ is the movement of molecules down their concentration gradient
  23. in _________ diffusion substances are moved through the plasma membrane by binding to protein carriers in the membrane or by moving through channels
  24. _________ is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
  25. _________ transport processes use energy (ATP) to move substances across the membrane
  26. active transport uses _________ _________ to move substances against a concentration gradient
    solute pump
  27. _________ transport is the means by which largy particles, macromolecules, and fluids are transported across the plasma membrane, or within the cell
  28. _________ is the process used to move substances from inside the cell to the extracellular enviroment
  29. _________, _________, and _________ trafficking are vesicular transport processes that move molecules using protein-coated vesicles
    endocytosis, transcytosis, and vesicular
  30. the _________ is the cellular material between the cell membrane and the nucleus, and is the site of most cellular activity
  31. What are the three major elements of the cytoplasm?
    cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles and cytoplasmic inclusions
  32. _________ are sausage-shaped membranous organelles that are the power plants of the cells, producing mosts its ATP
  33. _________ are small staining granules consisting of protein and ribosomal RNA that are the site of protein synthesis
  34. the _________ _________ is an extensive system of tubes and membranes enclosing fluid-filled cavities, called cisternae, that extend throughout the cytosol
    endoplasmic reticulum
  35. the _________ ER has ribosomes that manufacture all proteins that are secreted from cells
  36. _________ ER is a continuation of rough ER, consisting of a looping network of tubules.
  37. the _________ _________ is a series of stacked, flattened, membranous sacs associated with
    • _________are sausage-shaped membranous organelles that are the power plants of the cell, producing most of its ATP.
    • mitochondria
  38. Ribosomes are small staining granules consisting of protein and ribosomal RNA that are the site of protein synthesis.
  39. The endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive system of tubes and membranes enclosing fluid-filled cavities, called cisternae, that extend throughout the cytosol.
  40. The ______ endoplasmic reticulum has ______ that manufacture all proteins that are secreted from cells.
    rough; ribosomes
  41. ______ is a continuation of rough ER, consisting of a looping network of tubules. Its enzymes catalyze reactions involved in several processes.
    smooth ER
  42. The ______ _______ is a series of stacked, flattened, membranous sacs associated with groups of membranous vesicles.
    Golgi apparatus

    • What's the main function of the Golgi apparatus?
    • modify, concentrate, and package the proteins and lipids made at the rough ER.
  43. The Golgi apparatus creates _______ containing lipids and transmembrane proteins for incorporation into the cell membrane.
  44. The Golgi apparatus packages _______ enzymes into lysosomes.
  45. ________ are spherical membranous organelles that contain digestive enzymes.
  46. _______ are membranous sacs containing enzymes, such as oxidases and catalases, which are used to detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol, formaldehyde, and free radicals.
  47. The _________ is a series of rods running through the cytosol, supporting cellular structures and aiding in cell movement.
  48. What are the three types of rods in the cytoskeleton?
    microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
  49. The __________ is a region near the nucleus in which a group of microtubules is anchored.
  50. The centrosome functions as a microtubule organizing center, and forms the mitotic spindle during cell division.
    Centrioles are small, barrel-shaped organelles associated with the centrosome, and also form the bases of cilia and flagella.
  51. _______ are whiplike, motile cellular extensions on the exposed surfaces of some cells.
    • Cilia
    • _________ are long cellular projections that move the cell through the environment.
    • Flagella
  52. _________ are fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that increase surface area.

    • The ______ is the control center of the cell and contains the cellular DNA.
    • nucleus
  53. The ______ _______ is a double-membrane barrier surrounding the nucleus.
    nuclear envelope
  54. _______ are dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus.
  55. _______ is roughly half DNA, the genetic material of the cell, and half histone proteins.
  56. When a cell is preparing to divide, chromatin condenses into dense, rodlike chromosomes.
  57. The _________ is a series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed to the time it reproduces.
    cell life cycle
  58. What are the two main periods of the cell cycle?
    Interphase and cell division
  59. ________ is a process necessary for growth and tissue repair.
    Cell division
  60. _______ is the process of nuclear division in which cells contain all genes.
  61. _______ is the process of nuclear division found only in egg and sperm cells in which the cells have half the genes found in other body cells.
  62. ___________ is the process of dividing the cytoplasm.
  63. What are the two main steps of protein synthesis?
    transcription and translation.
  64. _____________ is the process of transferring information from a gene’s base sequence to a complementary mRNA molecule.

    • ___________ is the process of converting the language of nucleic acids (nucleotides) to the language of proteins (amino acids).
    • Translation

    Extracellular matrix is a jellylike substance consisting of proteins and polysaccharides.
  65. Tissue specimens must be fixed (preserved) and sectioned (sliced) thinly enough to allow light transmission.
    Tissue sections must be stained with dyes that bind to different parts of the cell in slightly different ways so that anatomical structures are distinguished from one another.

    • An _________ is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a cavity.
    • epithelium
  66. Epithelium occurs in the body as:
    • 1. covering or lining epithelium, and as glandular epithelium.
    • 2. Composed of closely packed cells with little extracellular material between.
    • 3. Adjacent epithelial cells are bound together by specialized contacts such as desmosomes and tight junctions.
    • 4. Exhibits polarity by having an apical surface (free) and a basal surface (attached).
    • 5. Supported by the underlying connective tissue.
    • 6. Innervated but avascular.
    • 7. Has a high regeneration capacity.
  67. ______ epithelia are mostly concerned with absorption, secretion, and filtration.
  68. ______ ________ epithelium is a single layer of fish scale–shaped cells.
    Simple squamous
  69. ______ ________ epithelium is a single layer of cube-shaped cells forming the smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules.
    Simple cuboidal
  70. ______ ________ epithelium is a single layer of column-shaped cells that line the digestive tract.
    Simple columnar
  71. ________________ ________ epithelium contains cells of varying heights giving the false impression of the presence of many layers.
    Pseudostratified columnar
  72. What's Stratified epithelia’s main function?
  73. __________ ________ epithelium is composed of several layers with the cells on the free surface being squamous shaped and the underlying cells being cuboidal or columnar in shape.
    Stratified squamous
  74. __________ ________ epithelium is rare, found mostly in the ducts of some of the larger glands.
    Stratified cuboidal
  75. __________ ________ epithelium is found in limited distribution with small amounts in the pharynx, in the male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts.
    Stratified columnar
  76. ____________ epithelium forms the lining of the hollow organs of the urinary system that stretches as they fill.
  77. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones by exocytosis directly into the blood or lymph.
  78. What are the major functions of connective tissue?
    binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation.
  79. All connective tissue arises from an embryonic tissue called _________.
    • mesenchyme.
    • forms during the early weeks of embryonic development from the mesoderm layer and eventually differentiates into all other connective tissues.
  80. ________ ______ are extremely strong and provide high tensile strength to the connective tissue.
    Collagen fibers
  81. _______ ______ contain elastin, which allows them to be stretched and to recoil.
    Elastic fibers
  82. _________ ______ are fine, collagenous fibers that form networks.
    Reticular fibers
  83. _______ __________ tissue serves to bind body parts together while allowing them to move freely over one another, wraps small blood vessels and nerves, surrounds glands, and forms the subcutaneous tissue.
    Areolar connective
  84. _____________ tissue is a richly vascularized tissue that functions in nutrient storage, protection, and insulation.
    Adipose (fat)
  85. _________ __________ tissue forms the internal framework of the lymph nodes, the spleen, and the bone marrow.
    Reticular connective
  86. Dense _______ connective tissue contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction and makes up tendons and ligaments.
  87. Dense _________ connective tissue contains thick bundles of collagen fibers arranged in an irregular fashion, and is found in the dermis.
  88. Cartilage lacks ______ ______ and is ________.
    nerve fibers; avascular
  89. _______ cartilage is the most abundant cartilage, providing firm support with some pliability.
  90. _______ cartilage is found where strength and exceptional stretchability are needed, such as the external ear.
  91. ______________ is found where strong support and the ability to withstand heavy pressure are required, such as the intervertebral discs.
  92. _____________________ has an exceptional ability to support and protect body structures due to its hardness, which is determined by the additional collagen fibers and calcium salts found in the extracellular matrix.
    Bone (osseous tissue)
  93. Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system, which regulates and controls body functions
  94. Nervous tissue is composed of two types of cells.
    • Neurons are specialized cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses.
    • Supporting cells are nonconductive cells that support, insulate, and protect the neurons.
  95. ________ ______ attaches to the skeleton and produces voluntary body movement.
    Skeletal muscle
  96. _______ ______ is responsible for the involuntary movement of the heart.
    Cardiac muscle
  97. ______ ______ is found in the walls of the hollow organs.
    Smooth muscle
  98. _________ membrane, or skin, is an organ system consisting of a keratinized squamous epithelium firmly attached to a thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue
  99. ______ membranes line body cavities that open to the exterior and contain either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia
  100. ______ membranes consist of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of loose connective (areolar) tissue
  101. Tissue repair occurs in two ways: regeneration and fibrosis
  102. What are the three steps that are involved in the tissue repair process?
    • 1. Inflammation prepares the area for the repair process.
    • 2. Organization restores the blood supply.
    • 3. Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair.
Card Set:
Intro to A&P, exam2
2013-10-26 23:45:42
tissues cells

CH 3
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