ANP2 2nd hour exam

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trice410
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ANP2 2nd hour exam
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2013-10-27 12:17:11
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ANP2
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Ch.18,19 and 20
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  1. What branches are paired and unpaired
    The Visceral Branches
  2. The unpaired arteries supply:
    Celiac Trunk: the stomach, spleen & liver

    Splenic Artery: spleen, pancreas & stomach

    L. Gastric Artery: stomach

    Inferior Mesenteric: the lower part of the large intestine

    Common Hepatic Artery: liver, gallbladder, & small intestine

    Superior Hepatic Artery: small intestine, proximal large intestine (cecum, ascending & transverse colon)
  3. The paired arteries supply:
    Kidneys, Adrenal Glands and Gonads
  4. Paired Arteries:
    Suprarenal Artery: Adrenal Glands

    Renal Artery: Kidneys

    Testicular Arteries: Testes in males

    Ovarian Arteries: Ovaries in females
  5. What arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and becomes the external iliac arteries and the internal branch from the common iliac arteries
    The Common Iliac Arteries
  6. Each common illiac divides into the two:
    -External Iliac Artery: lower limb (legs)

    -Internal Illiac Artery: urinary bladder, rectum, uterus and  vagina
  7. What of the internal iliac arteries supply the pelvic organs
    The Visceral Branches
  8. What branches supply the pelvic wall and floor and the external genitalia
    The Parietal Branches
  9. The external iliac arteries
    Branch from the common iliac arteries
  10. The external iliac artery
    Continues (without branching) as the femoral artery (in the thigh region) and then as the popliteal artery (in the knee)
  11. Divides to form the anterior and posterior tibial arteries
    The Popliteal Tibial Artery
  12. What gives rise to the fibular (peroneal) & plantar arteries
    The Posterior Tibial Artery
  13. What forms the plantar arch, from which the digital arteries (in toe region) arise
    The Plantar Arteries
  14. 3 major veins returning blood to the heart are the:
    -Superior Vena Cava: (head, neck, thorax & upper limbs)

    -Inferior Vena Cava: (abdomen, pelvis, & lower limbs)

    -Coronary Sinus: (heart)
  15. What are 3 types of Veins
    -Superficial

    -Deep Veins

    -Sinuses
  16. What drain the dural sinuses & veins of the interior head, face & neck
    The Internal Jugular Veins
  17. What drain the posterior head and neck
    The External Jugular & the Vertebral Veins
  18. What is formed from the joining of the Subclavian Veins
    Brachiocephalic Vein
  19. Are the small ulnar & radial veins of the forearm, which join the brachial veins of the arm.

    The Brachial Veins drain into the axillary vein.
    The Deep Veins
  20. The Superficial Veins are
    The basilic, Cephalic, and Median cubital veins
  21. The ______ vein becomes the _________ vein, which then becomes the __________ vein.
    Basilic vein

    Axillary vein

    Subclavian vein
  22. The ________ vein drains into the ________ vein (drains blood from upper limbs)
    Cephalic vein

    Axillary vein
  23. What connects to the basilic and cephalic veins at the elbow and is also used to draw blood from the elbow
    The Median Cubital Vein
  24. What drains blood from the fingers and thumb
    The Digital Vein
  25. What veins return blood to the Superior Vena Cava
    -Left & Right Brachiocephalic Veins

    -Azygos Vein
  26. Veins from the stomach, intestines, spleen, & pancreas connect with what
    The Hepatic Portal Vein
  27. Drains blood from the stomach, intestines & spleen
    Internal Iliac Vein
  28. Drains blood from the small intestine
    Superior  Mesenteric Vein
  29. Drains blood from the descending and transverse colon & rectum
    Inferior Mesenteric Vein
  30. The Deep Veins are:
    -Fibular (peroneal) Vein

    -Anterior Tibial Vein

    -Posterior Tibial Vein

    -Popliteal Vein

    -Femoral Vein

    -External Iliac Vein
  31. Small & Great Saphenous Veins
    The Superficial Veins
  32. The longest vein in the body that ascends along the medial side of the leg
    Greater Saphenous Vein
  33. A measure of force exerted by blood against the blood vessel wall
    Blood Pressure
  34. Blood pressure that occurs when the ventricles are contracting is known as
    Systolic Pressure
  35. Blood Pressure can b measured by listening to ___________ ________ produced by turbulent flow in arteries as pressure is released from a blood pressure cuff.
    Korotkoff Sounds
  36. What is used to measure blood pressure
    Sphygmomanometer
  37. Resistance is:
    The sum of all the factors that inhibit blood flow.
  38. Resistance increases:
    When blood vessels become smaller and viscosity increases
  39. The amount of blood that moves through a vessel in a given period. __________ __________ to pressure differences and is __________ ___________ to resistance
    Directly Proportional and Inversely Proportional
  40. What is the resistance of a liquid flow
    Viscosity
  41. Most of the Viscosity of blood results from
    Red Blood Cells
  42. The Viscosity of blood increases when
    The Hematocrit Increases or Plasma Volume Decreases and Decreases Blood Flow
  43. What factors influences resistance to blood flow in the arteries
    -Diameter

    -Viscosity of Blood

    -Length of Blood Vessel
  44. Mean Arterial Pressure equals Cardiac Output  times peripheral resistance
    MAP=CO x PR
  45. What is the difference betwn Systolic & Diastolic Pressures
    Pulse Pressure
  46. __________increases when Stoke Volume (SV) increases or Vascular Compliance decreases
    Pulse Pressure
  47. -Common Carotid Artery
    -Facial Artery
    -Axillary Artery
    -Brachial Artery
    -Radial Artery
    -Femoral Artery
    -Dorsalis Pedis Artery
    Are some major pulse points in the body
  48. ________, which includes osmosis, and filtration are the primary means of capillary exchange (blood & interstitial)
    Diffusion
  49. _________moves materials out of capillaries and ________ moves them into capillaries
    -Filtration

    -Osmosis
  50. A net movement of fluid occurs from the blood into the tissues. The fluid gained by the tissues is removed by
    The Lymphatic System
  51. Blood Pressure averages 100 mm Hg in the aorta and drops to 0 mm Hg in the right atrium. The greatest drop occurs in the
    Arterioles and Capillaries
  52. In a standing person, hydrostatic pressure caused by gravity
    -Increases blood pressure below the heart

    -Decreases pressure above the heart
  53. Capillary exchange occurs where
    Through or btwn Endothelial Cells
  54. What is a measure of the change in volume of blood vessels produced by a change in pressure
    Vascular Compliance
  55. What can be used to take the pulse and what waves travel through the Vascular System faster than the blood flows
    Pulse pressure
  56. What's responsible for the exchange of fluids across the walls of capillaries
    Blood Pressure and Osmosis
  57. Arterioles vasodilate and precapillary sphincters relax: increase blood flow to the tissues is an example of what
    The metabolic activity of a tissue increases, the diameter and number of capillaries in the tissue increase over time
  58. What is a reservoir for blood
    The Veins
  59. Most blood vessels __________ and muscle & heart blood vessels __________in Sympathetic Stimulation
    Vasoconstrict and Vasodilate
  60. Venous return increases because of the
    Vasoconstriction of veins, an increased blood volume, and the skeletal muscle pump(with valves)
  61. Effect of Epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla:
    Vasodilation in the skeletal and cardiac muscles and vasoconstriction in skin and kidneys
  62. What responds to high carbon dioxide or low oxygen or pH (H+ ions) levels in the medulla, leading to increased vasoconstriction, heart rate and force contraction (CNS ischemic response) and increased Blood Pressure
    Central Chemoreceptors
  63. Chemoreceptors are located in
    The Medulla Oblongata, Aortic Bodies & Carotid Bodies
  64. Released by the kidneys in response to low blood pressure
    Renin
  65. Renin promotes the production of ________, which causes vasoconstriction and an increase in _________ __________
    -Angiotensin ll

    -Aldosterone secretion
  66. Helps maintain blood volume by decreasing urine production and conserving sodium ion and water by kidneys
    Aldosterone
  67. Causes ADH release from the Posterior Pituitary in response to a substantial decrease in blood pressure
    The Vasopression (ADH) mechanism
  68. Causes Vasoconstriction and helps maintain blood volume by decreasing urine production
    ADH
  69. Is considered to be a Vasoconstriction and Antidiuretic
    Vasopressin
  70. Causes Atrial Natriuretic hormone release from the cardiac muscle cells when atrial blood pressure increases. It stimulates and increase in urine production, causing a decrease in blood volume and decrease blood pressure
    The Atrial Natriuretic Mechanism
  71. Causes fluid shift, which is a movement of fluid from the interstitial spaces into capillaries in response to a decrease in blood pressure to maintain blood volume
    The Fluid Shift Mechanism
  72. What increases blood pressure, increase vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, increased blood volume


    In Circulatory Shock
    Baroreceptor Reflexes and the Adrenal Medullary Response
  73. What increases Vasoconstriction and Blood Volume



    In Circulatory Shock
    The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism and the Vasopressin Mechanism
  74. In severe shock, the ____________ _________ increase Vasoconstriction, heart rate and force of contraction


    In Circulatory Shock
    Chemoreceptor Reflexes
  75. In what despite negative-feedback mechanisms, a positive-feedback cycle of decreasing blood pressure can cause death


    In Circulatory Shock
    Severe Shock
  76. What consists of two semi-independent parts

    -A network of Lymphatic Vessels
    -Lymphoid tissues and organs scattered throughout the body
    The Lymphatic System
  77. Lymphoid tissues and organs scattered throughout the body
    • Lyphatic Nodules
    • Lymph Nodes
    • Tonsils
    • Spleen
    • Thymus
  78. Returns interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood
    Lymph Flow
  79. When interstitial fluid enter the lymphatic capillaries it is called
    Lymph
  80. -Maintains fluid balance in tissues

    -Absorbs fats from the small intestine

    -Defends against microorganisms and foreign substances

    Are:
    Functions of the Lymphatic System
  81. Specialized lymph capillaries present in the intestinal mucosa
    Lacteals
  82. What flows toward the heart
    Lymph
  83. Located in tissues, similar to blood capillaries, with modifications
    Lymphatic Capillaries
  84. Lymphatic Capillaries are
    • Very Permeable
    • Loosely joined endothelial mini-valves
    • Withstand interstitial pressure and remain open
    • And join to form Lymphatic vessels
  85. Lymph Vessels include:
    • -Microscopic, permeable, blind-ended capillaries
    • -Lymphatic Vessels
    • -Ducts (largest of them all)

    Lymphatic capillaries+Lymphatic Vessels+Lyphatic Ducts
  86. What do lymphatic vessels have
    Internal Valves that insure the one-way flow of lymph
  87. How is Lymph moved
    • Contraction of lymphatic vessel smooth muscle
    • Skeletal muscle action
    • Thoracic Pressure changes
  88. Lymph is delivered in one of two trunks
    • Right Lymphatic Duct
    • Thoracic Duct
  89. Drains the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax
    Right Lymphatic Duct
  90. Arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body through left subclavian vein
    Thoracic Duct
  91. Reticular connective tissue that contains lymphocytes (primary cell in lymphatic organs) and other cells
    Lymphatic Tissue
  92. Lymphatic tissue can be surrounded by
    A Capsule (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus)
  93. Lymphatic tissue can be
    Non-encapsulated (diffuse lymphatic tissue, lymphatic nodules, tonsils)
  94. Consists of dispersed lymphocytes and has no clear boundaries
    Diffuse Lymphatic Tissue
  95. Small aggregates of lymphatic tissue (e.g., Peyer's patches in small intestines)
    Lymphatic Nodules
  96. -Isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue, similar to tonsils
    -Found in walls of the distal portion of the small intestine
    -Similar structures are found in the appendix
    Peyer's Patches
  97. Destroy bacteria, preventing them from breaching the intestinal wall
    Peyer's Patches and the Appendix
  98. -Lymphatic nodules and diffuse lymphatic tissue located in the posterior pharynx
    -Simplest lymphoid organs
    Tonsils
  99. Tonsils Location:
    Palatine Tonsils: Either side of the posterior end of the oral cavity

    Lingual Tonsils: Lie at the base of the tongue

    Pharyngeal Tonsils: Posterior wall of the nasopharynx
  100. Trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter
    Crypts
  101. A bean-shaped lymph structure that is distributed along lymph vessels
    Lymph Nodes
  102. Aggregations of these lymph nodes occur near the body surface in
    Inguinal, Axillary and Cervical regions of the body
  103. Two basic functions of Lymph Nodes:
    • Filtration
    • Immune system activation
  104. Macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris
    Filtration
  105. Monitor for antigens and mount an attack against them
    Immune System Activation
  106. What contains follicles with germinal centers, heavy with dividing B cells
    Cortex
  107. Flow of lymph through a lymph node:
    • Afferent Lymphatic Vessel
    • Lymph Node
    • Efferent Lymphatic Vessel
  108. In the left superior side of the abdomen
    Spleen
  109. Spleen is in two distinct areas:
    • White Pulp
    • Red Pulp
  110. Contains mostly lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers and are involved in immune functions
    White Pulp
  111. Remaining splenic tissue concerned with disposing of worn-out RBCs in venous sinuses and blood borne pathogens
    Red Pulp
  112. A limited reservoir for blood
    The Spleen
  113. A lymphatic organ found in the superior thoracic cavity
    The Thymus
  114. A bilobed organ that secrets hormones (thymosin and thymopoietin) that cause T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent or get matured
    Thymus
  115. Two types of lymphatic tissues found in the thymus lobules
    Cortex and Medulla
  116. The ability to resist harmful effects of microorganisms and other foreign substances
    Immunity
  117. Two types of Immunity:
    • Adaptive Immunity
    • Innate Immunity
  118. Type of immunity that exhibits specificity and memory
    Adaptive Immunity
  119. Type of immunity that does not show specificity or memory
    Innate Immunity
  120. The ability of adaptive immunity to "remember" previous encounters with a particular pathogen (also no signs or symptoms of disease)
    Immunological Memory
  121. Secreted by immune cells which upon binding to receptors can stimulate a response
    Cytokines
  122. Innate Immunity Cells include:
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Mast Cells
    • Monocytes-becomes Macrophage
    • Natural Killer Cells
    • Macrophages
    • Dendritic cells-processes antigens, activates B+T cells
  123. Adaptive Immunity Cells include:
    • B cell-becomes plasma cells or memory B cells
    • Plasma cell-produces antibodies
    • Memory B cell-quick response
    • Cytotoxic T cell-destroys cells
    • Helper T cell-regulates B, cytotoxic T cells
    • Memory T cell-quick response
  124. Responds quickly and consists of: Mechanical mechanisms of Innate Immunity
    -Skin and mucosae prevent entry of microorganisms
    -Tears, Saliva, and Mucus remove them
    Chemical Mediators (eg. mucus, interferon, histamine)
    Innate Immunity
  125. Each complement pathway involves a cascade in which compliment proteins are activated in an orderly sequence. The end result is
    Cell Lysis, Phagocytosis, and Inflammation
  126. Compliment Pathway can be activated by either
    The Classical or the Alternative Pathway
  127. Classical Pathway is part of
    Adaptive Immunity
  128. Alternative Pathway is part of
    Innate Immunity
  129. When the C3 protein combines with a bacterial cell or virus and
    The Complement Cascade is activated
  130. The complex that causes cells to rupture when complement is activated is called
    Membrane attack Complex
  131. Stimulates the neighboring cells to produce proteins to prevent the replication of viruses
    Interferons
  132. Small phagocytic cells
    Neutrophils
  133. The accumulation of dead neutrophils, dead microorganisms, debris from dead tissue and fluid in damaged tissue is
    Pus
  134. Release chemicals that promote inflammation
    Basophils and Mast Cells
  135. Release enzymes that reduce inflammation
    Eosinophils
  136. What is are nonspecific lymphocyte that kills tumor cells and virus infected cells
    Natural Killer Cells
  137. Large phagocytic cells
    Macrophages
  138. Macrophages can engulf
    More than Neutrophils can
  139. Macrophages enter the tissue during
    The late stage of an infection
  140. In connective tissue they protect the body at locations where microbes are likely to enter and
    Microphages clean blood and lymph
  141. Some Microphages have specific names
    • Dust Cells in the Lungs
    • Kupffer Cells in the Liver
    • Microglia in the CNS
  142. What attracts phagocytes (chemotaxis)
    Chemical Mediators
  143. Local Inflammation produces the symptoms of
    • Redness
    • Heat
    • Swelling
    • Pain
    • Loss of Function
  144. Symptoms of Systemic Inflammation include
    • An increase in Neutrophil numbers
    • Fever
    • Shock
  145. What is an antigen-specific, systemic, and has memory
    The Adaptive Immune System
  146. It has two separate but overlapping arms:
    • Antibody-mediated immunity (provided by antibodies in the blood and lymph)
    • Cell-mediated Immunity (T lymphocytes are involved)
  147. A hypersensitivity reaction which is a harmful response that doesn't stimulate adaptive response
    Allergy
  148. An immediate hypersensitivity reaction is the
    Inappropriate overreaction of antibody-mediated immunity. Eg.poison ivy, cat dander
  149. Autoimmune disease is caused by
    An adaptive response to self-antigens. Eg. rheumatoid fever, diabetes mellitus (type I), myasthenia gravis
  150. B cells and T cells originate in
    Red Bone Marrow
  151. B cells are processed in
    Bone Marrow
  152. T cells are processed in
    The Thymus
  153. Ensures the survival of lymphocytes that can read against antigens
    Positive Selection
  154. Eliminates lymphocytes that react against self-antigens
    Negative Selection
  155. The antigenic determinant (epitope) is the
    Specific part of the antigen to which the B or T lymphocyte recognize
  156. What displays an antigen on the surface of cells
    Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecule
  157. What displays antigens on the surface of nucleated cells, resulting in the destruction of the cells
    MHC Class I Molecule
  158. What displays antigens on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, resulting in the activation of immune cells
    MHC ll Molecules
  159. Helper T Cell is classified as a
    Regulatory T Cell
  160. Helper T Cell is needed to activate
    Antibody-Mediated Immunity
  161. Helper T Cell is also known as
    CD4 or T4 Cell
  162. What is also known as CD8 or T8 Cell
    Cytotoxic
  163. Steps to activate helper T cell:
    • Processed antigen bound to MHC ll+CD4 molecule, co-stimulators
    • Presents processed antigen to naïve helper T cell which secretes Interleukin 2
  164. Responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
    B Cells
  165. Steps to activate a B cell:
    • Antigen binds to B cell receptor
    • Endocytosis of antigen
    • B Cell presents antigen with MHC ll+CD4 to Helper T Cell
    • Helper T Cell secrets Interleukin 4 to stimulate B Cell
  166. Another name for an antibody is
    Immunoglobulin and Gamma Globulin
  167. Structure of an antibody involves
    Two Heavy Chains and Two Light Chains
  168. Class of Antibody:
    IgG, IgM, IgE, IgA, and IgD
  169. Found in colostrum or milk for newborns
    IgA
  170. Responsible for ABO transfusion reactions
    IgM
  171. Can cross placenta, responsible for HDN
    IgG
  172. When an antibody combines with an antigen:
    • Release of Inflammatory Chemicals
    • Inactivation of the Antigen
    • Phagocytosis of the Antigen
    • Activate Complement through the Classical Pathway
  173. In Antibody Production: the primary response results from the results from the exposure to an antigen
    ________ form plasma cells, which produce antibodies and Memory B Cells
    B Cells
  174. In Antibody Production: the secondary response results from exposure to an antigen after a primary response
    ________quickly form Plasma Cells and additional Memory B Cells
    Memory B Cells
  175. How much time is needed for production of antibodies by a plasma cell
    3-14 days' time
  176. Cell Mediated Immunity is Effective against
    Infection from Parasites, Fungus, Viruses, Tissue Transplants, and Tumors
  177. What is controlled by Cell-Mediated Immunity
    Cancers
  178. What are involved with Cell-Mediated Immunity
    T Cells
  179. What is responsible for a cell-mediated response to an antigen
    Cytotoxic T Cell
  180. Effects of Cytotoxic T Cells:
    • Lysis of Target Tissues
    • Production of Cytokines
    • Production of Antibodies
  181. The type of immunity caused by antibodies produced by another person or animal that is transferred to a non-immune individual
    Passive Immunity
  182. Caused by a disease caused by disease-causing bacteria that cause disease symptoms in the patient
    Active Natural Immunity
  183. Caused by a Vaccine
    Active Artificial Immunity
  184. Caused by antibodies being passed from the mother's blood across the placenta into the fetus' blood
    Passive Natural Immunity Immunities
  185. Caused by an antiserum injection for a snake bite
    Passive Artificial Immunity Immunities
  186. Respiration:
    • 1. Movement of air into and out of the lungs (Ventilation or Breathing)
    • 2. Exchange of gases betwn the lungs and the blood
    • 3. Transport of these gases
    • 4. Exchange of gases btwn the blood and the tissues
  187. Functions of Respiration:
    • 1. Gas Exchange
    • 2. Regulation of Blood pH
    • 3. Voice Production
    • 4. Olfaction (sense of smell)
    • 5. Protection
  188. The Respiratory System consist of
    The Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract
  189. Upper Respiratory Tract
    The External Nose, Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, and Associated Stuctures
  190. Lower Respiratory Tract
    Larynx , Trachea, the Bronchi, and Lungs
  191. External nose
    Only Visible Structure
  192. In the Nasal Cavity
    • Nares or Nostrils- external openings
    • Choanae- nasal opening into the pharynx
    • Vestibule- anterior portion of nasal cavity
    • Hard Palate- separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
    • Nasal Septum- divides nose into right and left parts
    • Conchae- boney ridge in the nasal cavity
    • Meatus- Passageway beneath each conchae
  193. Function of Nose:
    • Provides an airway for respiration
    • Warms the incoming air with superficial capillaries
    • Humidifies the incoming air with mucus
    • Cleans the incoming air with nasal hairs, cilia and mucus
    • Serves as a resonating chamber for speech
    • Houses the olfactory receptors
  194. -Connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly
    -Common passageway for air, food, and drink
    -Commonly called the throat
    The Pharynx
  195. There are 3 regions:
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Laryngopharynx
  196. Grape-shaped structure that is the posterior extension of the soft palate
    The Uvula
  197. Air Only
    -Posterior to the choanae and Superior to the soft Palate
    Nasopharynx
  198. Soft palate separates the Nasopharynx from the
    Oropharynx
  199. Air and Food
    -Soft palate to the epiglottis
    Oropharynx
  200. Primarilary Food and Drink
    -Epiglottis to the esophagus
    Laryngopharynx
  201. The Thyroid Cartilage is the largest cartilage in the larynx that forms the
    Adam's Apple
  202. Opening of the Larynx
    The Glottis
  203. The 3 functions of the larynx are:
    • To provide an airway
    • To act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels
    •    -Closure of the vestibular and vocal folds
    • To function in voice production
  204. Elastic Cartilage that covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing
    Epiglottis
  205. Two Pairs of ligaments:
    • False vocal cords (vestibular folds)
    • True vocal cords (vocal folds)
  206. False Vocal Cords
    • -Superior mucosal folds
    • -Have no part in sound production
  207. True Vocal Cords
    • -They vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from the lungs
    • -The medial betwn them is the glottis
    • -Inferior mucosal folds composed of elastic fibers
  208. Inflammation of the vocal folds
    Larynx
  209. Descends from the larynx through the neck to the fifth thoracic vertebra
    Trachea
  210. Trachea is composed of ________ ______tissue and _________ _________reinforced with 15-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage, which protect the trachea and keep the airway open
    Dense Regular Connective and Smooth Muscle
  211. The mucous membrane lining the trachea is made up of
    Goblet Cells and Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
  212. What Produces Mucus
    Goblet Cells
  213. Effect of Smoking on the lining of the trachea
    • -Loss of cilia
    • -Loss of Goblet Cells
    • -Lining becomes a moist stratified squamous epithelium
  214. The trachea ends by dividing into the
    Two Primary Bronchi
  215. What is the ridge that separates the left and right primary bronchi
    Carina
  216. Common site for an inhaled object to become lodged
    Right Primary Bronchus (is wider, shorter, and more vertical then the left
  217. 2 lobes in the left lung and 3 lobes in the right lung
    In the Lungs
  218. Once inside the lungs each main bronchus
    • Subdivides into lumbar (secondary) bronchi
    • Then segmental (tertiary) bronchi
    • Finally giving rise to the bronchioles, which subdivide many times to give rise to the terminal bronchioles
  219. Flow of air through the bronchi towards the alveoli
    • Bronchus
    • Lobar Bronchi
    • Segmental Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
  220. Small air filled chambers where gas exchange betwn the air and blood takes place
    Alveoli
  221. Approximately 300 million alveoli
    • Account for most of the Lungs Volume
    • Provide tremendous surface area for gas exchange
  222. As air passageways become smaller, structural changes occur
    • Cartilage Support Structures Decrease
    • Amount of Smooth Muscle Increases
    • Epithelium Types Change
  223. Mostly smooth muscle that with no cartilage, which allows the bronchioles to alter their diameter when a change in air flow is needed (i.e. during exercise)
    Terminal Bronchioles
  224. Flow of air through the bronchioles towards the alveoli
    • Bronchioles
    • Terminal Bronchioles
    • Respiratory Bronchioles
    • Alveolar Ducts
    • Alveoli
  225. Are a single layer of type l pneumocytes
    -Squamous Epithelial Cells
    -Compose 90% of the alveolar surface or wall
    Alveolar Walls
  226. Type ll Pneumocytes
    • -Round or cube-shaped secretory cells that produce surfactant
    • -Surfactant reduces surface tension, which makes it easier for the alveoli to expand
  227. Diseases is characterized by abnormally increased constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles
    Asthma
  228. Disease is genetic and characterized by abnormally increased thick, sticky mucus in the lungs and digestive tract
    Cystic Fibrosis
  229. Where gas exchange betwn air and blood occurs
    Respiratory Membrane
  230. Respiratory Membrane Consists of
    • Thin layer of fluid lining the alveolus
    • Alveolar epithelium
    • Basement membrane of the alveolar epithelium
    • A thin interstitial space
    • Basement membrane of the capillary endothelium
    • The Capillary endothelium
  231. Thin, double-layered serous membranes surround the lungs
    Pleura
  232. Covers the thoracic wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum
    Parietal Pleura
  233. Covers the external lung surface
    Visceral Pleura
  234. Negative Pressure space betwn the parietal and visceral pleura
    Pleural Cavity
  235. What
    -Fills the pleural cavity
    -Made by the pleural membranes
    -Serves as a lubricant
    -Holds the pleural membranes together
    Pleural Fluid
  236. Circulation that describes the movement of blood from the heart through the lungs and returns the blood back to the heart
    Pulmonary Circulation
  237. Supply deoxygenated systemic blood to be oxygenated
    Pulmonary Arteries
  238. Carry oxygenated blood from lungs back to the heart
    Pulmonary Arteries
  239. Provide systemic oxygenated blood to the lung tissue
    -Supply all lung tissue except the alveoli
    Bronchial Arteries
  240. Carry the deoxygenated blood back to the heart
    Bronchial Veins
  241. The movement of air in and out the lungs
    Is Ventilation
  242. Movement of air in and out of the lungs
    -Muscles involved are the diaphragm and those  that elevate the ribs and sternum
    -As the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and the rib cage rises and the thoracic volume increases
    Inspiration
  243. Movement of air out of the lungs
    -Muscles actively involved are those that depress the ribs and sternum like internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles contract (usually only with forceful expiration)
    -Largely a passive process (no active muscle contraction) in normal quiet breathing
    -Muscles of inspiration relax, the rib cage descends due to gravity and thoracic cavity volume decreases during normal quiet breathing
    Expiration
  244. Air flows from areas of higher to lower pressure (Changes in Pressure)
    If pressure is higher at one end of a tube (p1) than at the other (p2), air flow down it's pressure gradient
  245. Changes in volume result in changes in pressure
    -As volume increases in a closed container the pressure decreases or as volume decreases pressure decrease
    This Inverse Relationship is known as Boyle's Law
  246. Resistance (R) to airflow is proportional to the diameter (d) of a tube raised to the fourth power (d4)
    Poiseuille's Law
  247. Alveolar volumes increase ad alveolar pressure decreases
    When Inspiratory Muscles Contract
  248. Alveolar volumes decreases and alveolar pressure increases
    When Expiratory Muscles Contract
  249. -The cause of quiet expiration
    -Tendency for an expanded lung to decrease in size due to
    Lung Recoil (stretches & goes back)
  250. -Surface Acting Agent
    -Mixture of lipoprotein molecules
    -Acts in reducing surface tension in the alveoli
    Attraction of water molecules to each other
    Surfactant
  251. What's caused by the reduction of surfactant
    Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  252. Under negative pressure that is lower than alveolar pressure
    -Pressure in the pleural cavity
    Pleural Pressure
  253. Alveoli expand when
    Pleural Pressure is less than Alveolar Pressure
  254. Subatmospheric pleural pressure is caused by
    • Removal of fluid from the pleural cavity
    • Lung recoil
  255. Measurements can be used to
    • Diagnose disease
    • Track progress of disease
    • Track recovery from disease
  256. A device used to measure Pulmonary volume and Capacities
    Spirometer
  257. Is the process of measuring volumes of air that move into and out of the respiratory system
    Spirometry
  258. The following factors can cause variations in Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
    • Sex
    • Age
    • Body Size
    • Physical Condition
  259. Volume of air inspired or expired with each breath (approximately 500ml at rest)
    Tidal Volume (TV)
  260. The amount of air that can be inhaled forcefully after normal inspiration (approximately 3000ml at rest)
    inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
  261. Amount of air that can be  exhaled forcefully after a normal expiration (approximately 1100ml at rest)
    Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
  262. Amount of air that remains in the lungs after a maximal forceful expiration (approximately 1200ml)
    Residual Volume (RV)
  263. Sum of two or more pulmonary volumes
    Pulmonary Capacities
  264. Amount of air that can be maximally inspired after a expiration (approximately 3500ml at rest)
    Inspiratory Capacity (IC=IRV+TV)
  265. Amount of air that remains in the lungs after normal expiration (approximately 2300ml at rest)
    Functional Residual Capacity (FRC=ERV+RV)
  266. Amount of air that can be maximally expired after a maximal inspiratory effort (approximately 5800ml at rest)
    Vital Capacity (VC=IRV+TV+ERV)
  267. Amount of air that is the lungs after a maximal inspiratory effort (approximately 5800ml at rest)
    Total Lung Capacity (TLC=IRV+ERV+TV+RV)
  268. Amount of air that can be maximally expired after a maximal inspiratory effort as rapidly as possible
    Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity
  269. Amount of air that is moving into and out the lungs each minute
    Minute Ventilation
  270. Part of the respiratory system where there is no gas exchange
    Dead Space
  271. Volume of air that is available for gas exchange per minute
    Alveolar Ventilation (VA)
  272. Where does gas exchange occur
    In the Lungs
  273. Pressure exerted by a gas in a mixtures of gases
    Partial Pressure
  274. ________law states that the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases is equal to the total pressure of a mixture of gases
    Dalton's Law
  275. __________law states that the amount of gas which dissolves in a liquid is equal to the partial pressure of that gas times its solubility coefficient
    Henry's Law
  276. Gas exchange has an effect on the following
    • Diffusion coefficient of the gas
    • Surface area of the respiratory membrane
    • Partial pressure gradient of the gas
  277. Partial pressure gradient of carbon dioxide
    • Pulmonary veins has a Pco2 of 40 mm Hg
    • Both the pulmonary arteries and systemic veins have a Pco2 of 45 mm Hg
  278. Transport of Carbon Dioxide
    • 70% of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in HCO3-disolved in plasma
    • About 23%of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood is bound to hemoglobin in RBC's
  279. Respiratory center responsible for switching betwn inspiration and expiration
    Pontine Respiratory Groups
  280. Both the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups or the medullary respiratory center are responsible for
    Inspiration
  281. The respiratory rate and depth of breathing will Increase
    When H+ ions in the blood are Increased
  282. The respiratory rate and depth of breathing will Decrease
    When the pH of the blood is increased
  283. The respiratory rate and depth of breathing will Increase
    When Carbon Dioxide in the blood is Increased
  284. The respiratory rate and depth of breathing will increase
    When oxygen in the blood is dramatically decreased
  285. What reflex is stimulated when the lungs are overinflated
    Hering-Breuer Reflex
  286. After Training:
    • The exercise maximum minute ventilation increases
    • The vital capacity increases slightly
    • The resting respiratory rate decreases
  287. Effects of Aging on the respiratory system:
    • Maximum minute ventilation and Vital Capacity is decreased with age
    • Residual volume increased with age

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