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Policy affects "group" change
Ecological models illustrate "levels" or "layers" of influence that affect individual opportunities choices. Different stakeholders operate at these different "layer" and all must be reached using appropriate channels and activities in order to shift the barriers to universal access
How are structural and societal groups reached? (such as cultural values, gender norms, national polices and laws, etc)
Reached through politcal groups, lawmakers, religious leaders, etc
How to reach community and organizations (such as leadership, network, workplace policies, social capital, etc)?
Reached through local gatekeepers, employers, educators, local government, kin groups, neighbours, etc
How to reach relationships (parents, sexual partners, sex work clients, drug use partners, etc)?
Reached by and through individuals and their networks
- A plan or course of action intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters
- A course of action, guiding principle, or procedure considered expedient, prudent, or advantageous
Policy is part of a comprehensive health program
- Monitor health, diagnose & investigate
- Policy Development
- Inform, educate, empower; mobilize community partnerships; develop policies
- Enforce laws, link to/provide care, assure competent workforce, evaluate
3 Core parts of Policy
- Goals: what do you want to achieve or change
- Strategy: what is the plan for getting there
- Instrument: what can you use to get to implement the plan
Policy instruments generalized
- Make rules: mandatory or voluntary (they can be imposed by a higher authority)
- Make incentives
- Help empower people to change: education, information, capacity (they can be developed locally)
- Agenda setting:
- Problems identification, agenda setting, policy research, policy options & stratagies
- Policy Formation
- Policy negotiation, policy formation, policy organization
- Policy implementation
- Policy implementation, policy enforcement
- Policy review
- Policy accountability, policy evaluations
Policy is part of the problem solution continuum
- Define the problem (data collection/surveillance)
- Identify causes (risk factor identification)
- Develop and test interventions (evaluation research)
- Implement interventions and measure prevention effectiveness (community intervention/demonstration programs; training; public awareness)
How is policy made?
- Starts with a need for policy change, and favorable political climate; KNOWLEDGE suggested need for a change; and knowledge exchange between knowledge producers and knowledge users and people who can change policy feeds into this need for policy changes...
- This moves into the policy cycle, and internal influences (beliefs, habits, values, expertise and external influences (lobbyists, stakeholders, and politics) influence the policy cycle
Who makes and uses policy for animal health?
- Government: federal, provincial, and municipal
- Business (economically "enforced")
- Non-governmental bodies (Moral suasion): voluntary codes of practice
How do you influence policy
- Get the message to the people who count
- What is the message (define the problem, goals, strategies)
- Who "counts" - influenced vs influencer vs enabler vs obstacle
- Effects: effectiveness, unintended effects, and equity feed into...
- Implementation: acceptability, feasibility and cost
- which feed into INFLUENCE
- Turning the ideal into policy
- Health, welfare and security
- 4 pillars holding it up: environment, public health, animal health, and food and agriculture
- On a foundation of Horizontal governance (people, institutions, systems & culture practices)