Geog 112: Lec 1

Card Set Information

Author:
dante01
ID:
243077
Filename:
Geog 112: Lec 1
Updated:
2013-10-27 19:20:28
Tags:
midterm
Folders:

Description:
study
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user dante01 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Biogeography
    • -the pattern of distribution of organisms 
    • -natural distribution
    • --Distribution of animals WITH human influence.
  2. Ecology
    • -the study of the interactions among organisms with everything else
    • (what animals eats)
    • (How they interact with environment)
  3. Biome
    • -a collection of ecosystems distinguished by vegetative characteristics and climate
    • -Based on plants because they do not get up and move like animals do.
  4. Ecosystem
    • -a biological community and its physical environment
    • -Within 1 biome there are many ecosystems
  5. Habitat
    • -the natural environment in which an organism lives and thrives 
    • -Where it would naturally thrive on its' own.
    • -Breed easily, accessible food, water, shelter, appropriate climate, etc.
  6. Niche
    • -an organism's physiological adaptation to and interaction with its physical environment 
    • -Ex. Darwin's finches; beaks were adapted to a variety of environmental conditions
    • -Ex. Artic Fox; small ears, white coat, small eyes, thick fur, changes color from white to brown, solitary, smelly
  7. Climate change and white coat animals
    • -no snow but white animals
    • -easier for predators to catch them
  8. 2 Divisions of Animal geography
    • 1. Historical
    • -Vicariance animal geography 
    • -geographic isolation of animals
    • -When animal populations get separated by: Humans, river, or long range geological change.
    • 2. Ecological
    • -current relationship between organism and environment 
    • -what features of environment restricts animal?
    • -how/why are they distributed across the planet?
    • -why does a species dominate a specific area?
    • -why does a species move from one location to another?
  9. DNA evidence has put whales and dolphins into
    • ungulates
    • -animals with hooves
  10. Classes of animals
    • 1. Mammals - 4785 species
    • 2. Birds - 9721 species
    • 3. Fishes - 25,777 species
    • 4. Reptiles - 8,163 species
    • 5. Amphibians - 5,400
    • 6. Invertebrates - 1,300,000
  11. Invertebrates
    • -animals without backbones
    • -Ex. Protozoans, mollusks, Annelida, echinoderms, insects
  12. Amphibian
    • -permeable skin
    • -backbone
    • -cold-blooded
    • -part time in water and land
    • -mature in water
    • -breathe through skin and lungs
    • -most affected by environmental conditions
    • -Ex. frogs, salamanders, caecillian
  13. Reptiles
    • -most have 4 legs
    • -epidermal scales; protects skins and provides insulation
  14. Fishes
    • -ectothermic
    • -lateral line
    • -gills
    • -no eyelids
    • -no external ears
    • 1. Jawless fishes: no jaws, no stomachs
    • 2. Cartilaginous fishes: true bone, cartilage skeleton; sharks, skates, rays
    • 3. Bony fish: skeleton of bone
  15. Birds
    • -generally classify by feathers
    • -all birds have scaly feet and beaks
    • -oviparous
    • -endothermic
    • -walks on two legs:bipedal
    • -4 chambered heart
    • -hallow bones
    • -body systems are adapted to minimize weight
    • -cloaca: one hole for everything
    • -vast majority lack a sense of smell
  16. Mammals
    • -live offspring
    • -mammary glands:Nipples
    • -Earbones:3, provides balance
    • -warm-blooded
    • -hair
    • -have 4 or 3 chambered heart
    • -diaphram
    • 1. Montremes: lay eggs
    • -platypus
    • 2. Marsupials: undeveloped young
    • -red kangaroo:waits until conditions are right
    • -virgina opossum
    • 3. Placentals: develop internally
  17. Dental formula importance
    • -teeth are most important aspect of living animals
    • -teeth represents trophic level
  18. Faunal regions
    • -Major geographic biomes
    • 1. Paleartic
    • -Northern Old World
    • 2. Neoartic
    • -North America and Greenland
    • -smallest number of all fauna families
    • 3. Neotropic
    • -greatest number of endemic species
    • -South America
    • 4. Ethiopian
    • -subsaharan africa
    • -greateest familial diversity
    • 5. Oceanic
    • -islands of pacific ocean
    • 6. Oriental
    • -indian sub continent
    • 7. Australian
    • -australia, new guinea
    • -most unique species, marsupials
  19. Continental drift has a lot to do with
    dispersal
  20. marsupials originated in
    north america
  21. camels originated in
    north america
  22. Dispersal types
    • 1. Active
    • -moved on its own power
    • 2. Passive
    • -Organism didn't actively move on its own, something carried it
    • Ex. flea on dog, bird drops fish, humans moving things
  23. Faunal interchanges
    • -long term species dispersal
    • 1. Filter
    • -pathway allowing some animals to move & restricting others from moving through
    • -Great American Biotic interchage
    • -From North to South animals moved;dogs bears, deers
    • -From South to North, only mammals were porcupines and possums to survive
    • -filter didnt allow some animals
    • 2. Sweeptakes
    • -animal got lucky
    • -pathway allowing very few individual animals
    • Ex. animal ends up somewhere new because of current and swam; Australia to New Guinea or Africa to Madagascar
  24. Center of origin
    • -where the species originate
    • -the earliest known fossil evidence for a group
    • -a fossil history of its ancestor is found in a particular zone
    • -where you find the greatest number of the species, means you are close to its center of origin
  25. Extinction
    • -the total loss of a species
    • -more extinct species than living species
    • -natural process
    • -humans sped up the process
    • -Ex. Yangtzee River Dolphin and Passenger Pigeon

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview