Music 15 Midterm Study Guide

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  1. Form
    refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections
  2. Historical Style Periods
    A period of time during which historians perceive certain unifying stylistic and aesthetic characterizations in art of a certain time
  3. Aesthetics
    explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization
  4. Sacred
    music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence.
  5. Secular
    Non-religious music
  6. Charlemagne
    • Charlemagne and pope came to agreement
    • Pope gave him his blessing
    • "Consolidation of religious practices under Charlemagne"
  7. Liturgy
    Authorized texts for services in the Catholic mass
  8. Gregorian Chant
    • Medieval propaganda, a body of chant
    • Authorship credited to Pope Gregory
    • Male choir with one musical line at a time in increasing intensity
    • Simple rhythm, Latin
    • Earliest preserved Western musical tradition
  9. Genre
    A music genre is a conventional category that identifies pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions
  10. Pope Gregory
    Wrote the Gregorian Chant
  11. Monophonic
    Music in which all the notes sung are in unison is called monophonic
  12. Text Setting
    words and music can correspond in various   ways
  13. Syllabic
    One pitch per syllable
  14. Melismatic
    several (or sometimes     many!) notes per syllable      of text; often associated with operatic     singing
  15. Melisma
    A vowel that is stretched over many different pitches
  16. Hildegard Van Bingen (1098-1174)
    • Earliest known female composer
    • Founder of abbey in Bingen, Germany
    • Composer, poet, and scientist
    • Known as prophet for her visions
  17. Polyphonic
    two or more melodies heard simultaneously
  18. Imitative Polyphony
    a melody starts in one performer (or group of performers) and is then       overlapped by a second performer(s) performing the same melody delayed in       time
  19. Genre: Round
    • Each voice enters in succession with the same melody
    • A type of imitative polyphony
    • For a capella voices
    • "Row, row, row your boat"
  20. Soprano
    High female voice
  21. Alto
    Low female voice
  22. Tenor
    high male voice
  23. baritone
    middle-range male voice
  24. Bass
    Low male voice
  25. Homorhythm
    All voices move together in same rhythm
  26. Renaissance
    • A "rebirth" of learning and innovation
    • 1453- fall of Constantinople
    • Increased interest in Ancient Greece and Rome
  27. Humanism
    • Increased interest in life and human value as opposed to Medieval focus on religion and afterlife
    • Move towards commercialism and centralized govt
    • Move towards more realistic style in visual arts
  28. Josquin des Prez
    • Originally from Northern France
    • Moved to Italy to find fame
    • Sang in choir and Sistine chapel
    • Wrote both secular and sacred works
  29. Counter-Reformation
    • Catholic Church's response to Protestant reformation in early 1600s
    • An attempt to reform the Church
  30. Council of Trent
    • Group of about 255 clergy
    • Established new policies for Church
  31. Palestrina (1525-1594)
    • "The man who saved polyphony"
    • Born in Palestrina, Italy
    • Worked at The Vatican for several different popes
    • Famous for a more conservative, restrained style of polyphony
    • Wrote music for hundreds of masses
  32. Mass
    The musical setting of ordinaries from the mass (usually a cappella)
  33. Word painting
    The intentional use of musical gestures in a work that in some way reflect the literal or figurative meaning of a word or phrase of the lyrics
  34. Jacques Arcadelt
    • Worked in Italy
    • 250 madrigals
    • His 1st book of madrigals was the most widely reprinted collection of the time
  35. John Farmer
    • Possibly born in 1570
    • Active in Dublin and London Most famous for fair phyllis
  36. Tonality
    In music, principle of organizing musical compositions around a central note, the tonic
  37. Tonic
    In music, the tonic is the first scale degree of a diatonic scale and the tonal center or final resolution tone

    Almost always the last note of the piece
  38. Major Scale
    Happier sounding
  39. Minor Scale
    Softer sounding
  40. Baroque Era
    • Familiar instruments are developed
    • Instruments begin to be highlighted by themselves
    • Composers moulded the musical language to fit moods and affections
    • A baroque piece is famous for its doctrine of mood. What is happy will be happy throughout and what is sad continues to the end
  41. Homophony
    a   melody with vocal or instrumental accompaniment (a kind of texture)
  42. Basso Continuo
    Basso continuo is a form of musical accompaniment used in the Baroque period. It means "continuous bass".

    Basso continuo, sometimes just called “continuo”, was played by a keyboard instrument and another bass instrument such as cello, violone (an old form of double bass) or bassoon. The keyboard instrument was normally a harpsichord or, if it was being played in a church, an organ.
  43. Opera
    • Started in Italy at the end of the 16th century
    • A drama that is primarily sung, accompanied by instruments, and presented theatrically
    • Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble
  44. Aria
    in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. The term became used almost exclusively to describe a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without orchestral accompaniment, normally part of a larger work. The typical context for arias is opera
  45. Recitative
    • is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.
    • Recitative does not repeat lines as formally composed songs do. It resembles sung ordinary speech more than a formal musical composition
  46. George Frideric Handel
    • a German-born British Baroque composer famous for his operas, oratorios, anthems and organ concertos
    • Born in a family indifferent to music
    • Handel composed more than forty operas in over thirty years
    • strongly influenced by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition.
  47. Librettist
    The author of a libretto
  48. Da Capo Aria
    • a musical form that was prevalent in the Baroque era
    • It is sung by a soloist with the accompaniment of instruments, often a small orchestra
    • The da capo aria is very common in the musical genres of opera and oratorio
  49. Oratorio
    • An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
    • Like an opera, an oratorio includes the use of a choir, soloists, an ensemble, various distinguishable characters, and arias. However, opera is musical theatre, while oratorio is strictly a concert piece—though oratorios are sometimes staged as operas, and operas are sometimes presented in concert form
  50. Chorus
    A line or group of lines repeated at intervals in a song
  51. Ritornello
    • a recurrent musical section that alternates with different episodes of contrasting material. The repetition can be exact or varied to a greater or lesser extent
    • In the concerto grosso the full orchestra (tutti) has the ritornello; the solo group (concertino) has the contrasting episodes.
  52. Timbre
    is the quality of a musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices and musical instruments, string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments
  53. Johann Sebastian Bach
    • Born in central Germany and never left country
    • Composed both sacred and secular works
    • Over 200 church cantatas
    • Lots of keyboard music with no opera
    • Not well-known during lifetime
  54. Fugue
    A form in which one or more melodic themes are developed through carefully controlled imitative polyphony

    Melody is called the subject
  55. Subject
    The melody in a fugue
  56. Episode
    A passage between statements of a main subject or theme, as in a rondo or fugue.
  57. Reformation
    • Rebellion against the authority of the Catholic Church
    • New types of music, including chorales
    • The Catholic Church undertook its own internal program of reform
  58. Martin Luther
    a professor of biblical theology whose arguments that God offers salvation through faith alone and that religious authority comes from the Bible alone posed a challenge to the authority of the Catholic Church.
  59. Chorale
    • chorale is a melody to which a hymn is sung by a Christian congregation.
    • The typical four-part setting of a chorale, in which the sopranos (and the congregation) sing the melody along with three lower voices, is known as a chorale harmonization. In certain modern usage, this term may include classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character.
  60. Sacred Cantata
    • Developed 1700 as part of the Lutheran service
    • Based on a chorale melody
    • Used as part of a central church service
    • Chorus, ducts, and chorales
  61. Dance Suite
    • Composers like Bach composed sets of dances in a much more formal way and called these sets of dances dance suites.
    • Dance suites were very popular in 1700s and were written for orchestras or solo instruments
    • For a dance suite to be called a suite, it had to contain the four most popular dances
  62. King George I
    • Requested a dance suite from Handel
    • Legend has it that Handel composed Water Music to regain the favour of King George I
  63. Program Music
    Instrumental music that carries some extramusical meaning, some “program” of literary idea, legend, scenic description, or personal drama
  64. Concerto
    is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra.
  65. Antonio Vivaldi
    • Italian Baroque Composer
    • Catholic Priest
    • Known mainly for composing instrumental concertos for the violin
    • One of the most popular and widely recorded Baroque composers
  66. Ospedale della Pietà
    The Ospedale della Pietà was a convent, orphanage, and music school in Venice

    The composer Antonio Vivaldi was appointed a violin teacher in 1703 and served in various roles through 1715, and again from 1723 to 1740
  67. Ritornello form
    Many Baroque concertos are structured in a form known as ritornello form. In this form, a repeated section of music, the ritornello (literally, "the little thing that returns") alternates with freer episodes
  68. Strings
    Violin, viola-slightly bigger than violin, cello, double bass
  69. Woodwinds
    • Flute
    • Picolo-tiny, difficult to play
    • Clarinet-accompanies violin
    • Oboe-double reed
    • Bassoon-double reed, awkward size
  70. Brass
    • Trumpet- highest pitch brass, valves
    • Trombone-uses a slide, uses valves
    • French Horn: 16 ft long uncoiled, uses valves
  71. Percussion
    2 groves with and without pitch
  72. Arco
    Play with bow
  73. Pizzicato
    Pluck string
  74. Piano
    Quiet
  75. Theme
    In music, a theme is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based
  76. Motive
    a leading phrase or figure that is reproduced and varied through the course of a composition or movement
  77. Sonata-allegro form
    • Classical era
    • The form generally used for the opening movement of the Classical sonata.
  78. Minuet and trio
    This form is typically employed as the third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works. It originated as a stately, dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows. But the minuet movement of a symphony or string quartet is written for listening, not dancing. It is in triple meter and usually in a moderate tempo. The Minuet is in A B A form: minuet(A), trio(B), minuet(A).
  79. Theme and variations
    variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form

       material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based
  80. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Classical Era composer
    • Child prodigy
    • Austrian composer, widely recognized as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music
    • Wrote in all the musical genres of his day and excelled in every one
  81. Franz Joseph Haydn
    • One of the most prolific and prominent Classical composers
    • Spent most of career as a court musician
    • "Forced to become original" because he was isolated from other composers until later in his life
    • One of the most celebrated composers in Europe at time of death
  82. String quartet
    A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a violist and a cellist
  83. Libretto
    The text of a dramatic musical work, such as an opera
  84. Cadenza
    an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a "free" rhythmic style, and often allowing for virtuosic display

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