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What is personality?
The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment
What is the five-factor model of personality?
- 1. Extraversion
- 2. Emotional Stability/Neuroticism
- 3. Agreeableness
- 4. Conscientiousness
- 5. Openness to Experience
What is Extraversion?
this is the extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy
What is Emotional Stability/Neuroticism?
the degree which a person has appropriate emotional control
What is Agreeableness?
the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable
What is Conscientiousness?
the degree to which a person Is responsible and achievement-oriented
What is Openness to Experience?
the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
What's the Locus of control?
A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces
What is High internals?
believe that the opportunity to control their own behavior resides within themselves
What is High external?
believe that external forces determine their behavior
What is self-monitoring?
The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships
What is self-esteem?
the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
What is behavioural Plasticity theory?
People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem
What is positive affinity?
Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light
What is negative affinity?
Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light
What is proactive behaviour?
Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones
What is proactive personality?
A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment
What is general self-efficacy?
A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations
What is core self-evaluations?
A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth
What is Learning?
A relatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or experience
What is Operant Learning?
Learning by which the subject learns to operate in the environment to achieve certain consequences
What is Reinforcement?
The process by which stimuli strengthen behavior
What is positive reinforcement?
The application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behavior
What is negative reinforcement?
The removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability of some behavior
What are organizational errors involving reinforcements?
- 1. Confusing Rewards with Reinforcers
- 2. Neglecting Diversity in Preferences for Reinforcers
- 3. Neglecting Important Sources of Reinforcement
What is performance feedback?
Providing quantitative or qualitative information on past performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways
What is social recognition?
Informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another
What are reinforcement strategies?
- 1. Frequency of Reinforcement
- a. Continuous/Fast
- b. Partial/Acquisition
- 2. Delay of Reinforcement
- a. Short/Persistence
- b. Long
What is extinction?
The gradual dissipation of behavior following the termination of reinforcement
What is punishment?
The application of an aversive stimulus following some behavior designed to decrease the probability of that behavior
How to use punishment effectively?
- Make sure the chosen punishment is truly aversive
- Punish immediately
- Do not reward unwanted behaviors before or after punishment
- Do not inadvertently punish desirable behavior
How to increase the probability of behaviour?
How to reduce the probability of behaviour?
Extinction and punishment
What are social cognitive theories?
- Observational Learning
What is Observational Learning?
The process of observing and limiting the behavior of others
What is self-efficacy?
Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task
What is self-regulation?
The Use of learning principles to regulate one’s behavior
What is Organizational behaviour modification?
The systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behavior
what are employee recognition programs?
Formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviors
What is training?
Planned organizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and skill acquisition to change behavior and improve performance
What is behaviour modelling training?
One of the most widely used and effective methods of training, involving five steps based on the observational learning component of social cognitive theory
What is career development?
An ongoing process in which individuals progress through a series of stages that consist of a unique set of issues, themes, and tasks