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What is perception?
The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment
Some of the most important perceptions that influence organizational behavior are the perceptions that organizational members have of each other
What are the 3 components of perception?
- 1. Perceiver
- 2. The Target
- 3. The Situation
In detail the perceiver?
a. The perceiver’s experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target
b. Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and these expectations affect current perceptions
c. Frequently, our needs unconsciously influence our perception by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive
d. Emotions, such as anger, happiness, or fear, can influence our perceptions
e. Perceptual Defense
What is Perceptual Defense?
The tendency for perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions
In detail the target?
a. Perception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and addition
b. The perceiver does not or cannot always use all the information provided by the target. In these cases, a reduction in ambiguity might not be accompanied by greater accuracy
In detail the situation?
a. Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what one perceives
What did Psychologist Jerome Bruner state?
when the perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it
Gradually, the perceiver encounters some familiar cues (note the role of the perceiver’s experience here) that enable them to make crude categorization of the target
The perceiver begins to search out cues that confirm the categorization, actively ignoring or even distorting cues that violate initial perceptions
What are 3 characteristics about the perceptual process?
- o Perception is selective
- o Perceptual constancy
- o Perceptual consistency
How is perception selective?
Retain cues that are consistent with one’s expectations, needs, and mood, and reject cues that are inconsistent.
How is perception Constant?
Perceive a target in the same way over time or across situations, even in light of contradictory cues.
How is perception Consistent?
Select, ignore, and distort cues so that the retained cues fit together to form a consistent image of the target.
What is the primary effect?
The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
What is the Recency effect?
The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
What are central traits?
Relying on information about the person that is most interesting to you
What are implicit personality theories?
Beliefs that certain traits go together
What is projection?
Assuming that others are or think like you
What is stereotyping?
Generalizations about people in a social category, ignoring variations in that group o Stereotypes help us develop impressions of ambiguous targets, and we are usually pretty familiar with the people in our own groups o Language can be easily twisted to turn neutral or even favorable information into a basis for unfavorable stereotypes o Knowing a person’s occupation or field of study, we often make assumptions about their behavior and personality o Not all stereotypes are inaccurate o This raises an interesting question: if many stereotypes are inaccurate, why do they persist? o Sometimes, it is easier for the perceiver to rely on an inaccurate stereotype than it is to discover the true nature of the target.
What is attribution?
The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behavior
What is dispositional attribution
Explanations for behavior based on an actor’s personality or intellect, e.g. lazy, intelligent
What is situational attributes?
Explanations for behavior based on an actor’s external situation or environment, e.g. bad luck, poor weather
What are consistency cues?
Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in some behavior over time
What are consensus cues?
Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behavior compares with that of others.
What are distinctiveness cues?
Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behavior across a variety of situations.
What are biases in attribution?
Observers often operate in a rational, logical manner in forming attributions about behavior
The various cue combinations and the resulting attributions have a sensible appearance
Fundamental attribution error: The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behavior at the expense of situational explanations
What is the actor-observer effect?
The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behavior differently
What is the self-serving bias?
The tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures
How is the workplace changing?
The labor pool is changing, and at the same time many organizations are seeking to recruit more representatively from this pool so that they employ people who reflect their customer base—an effort to better mirror their markets
Globalization, mergers, and strategic alliances mean that many employees are required to interact with people from substantially different national or corporate cultures
What's a stereotype threat?
Members of a social group feel they might be judged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behavior or performance will confirm the stereotypes
What are racial and ethnic stereotypes?
Racial and ethnic stereotypes are pervasive, persistent, frequently negative, and often self-contradictory
What are some points of gender discrimination?
Considering their numbers in the workforce, women are severely underrepresented in managerial and administrative jobs
There is evidence that gender stereotypes are partially responsible for discouraging women from business careers and blocking their ascent to managerial positions
Stereotypes of successful middle managers do not correspond to stereotypes of women
The most recent research indicates that both men and women of varying age, education, and work experience still describe a good manager as possessing predominantly masculine characteristics
One recent study found that when women are successful in traditional male jobs, they are less liked
Women suffer from stereotype that is detrimental to their hiring, development, promotion, and salaries
On the other hand, hiring and promotion decisions might confront managers with ambiguous targets or situations and prompt them to resort to gender stereotypes in forming impressions
What are some age stereotypes?
We tend to make certain assumptions about people in certain age groups (whether they be physical, intellectual, psychological capabilities)
Older workers are seen as having less capacity for performance
Older workers are seen as having less potential for development
They tend to be perceived ad more honest, dependable, and trustworthy, (in short, more stable)
To combat this discrimination, Canada’s Association for the 50 Plus (CARP has worked with the Ontario Human Rights Commission on a public awareness campaign
How do you manage workplace diversity?
- Select enough minority members to get them beyond token status
- Encourage teamwork that brings minority and majority members together
- Ensure that those making career decisions about employees have accurate information Train people to be aware of stereotypes
- Awareness training program should be accompanied by skills training that is relevant to the particular needs of the organizations
*According to Michele Jayne and Robert Dipboye, diversity programs will be most successful when what following actions are taken as part of a diversity initiative?
- Build senior management commitment and accountability
- Conduct a thorough needs assessment
- Develop a well-defined strategy tied to business results
- Emphasizes team building and group process training
- Establish metrics and evaluate the effectiveness of diversity initiatives
What is trust?
A psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party
Trust in management is on a decline, and trust influence organizational processes and outcomes
What are three distinct perceptions?
ability, benevolence, and integrity
Perceptions of trust in management are positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior
What is Perceived Organizational support?
Employees’ general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well being
What is Organizational support theory?
A theory that states that employees who have strong perceptions of organizational support feel and obligation to care about the organization’s welfare and to help the organizations achieve its objectives
What are perceptions in the employment interview?
First, applicants are usually motivated to present an especially favorable impression if themselves
Second, interviewers have a tendency to exhibit primacy reactions
Less importance to positive information
- University of Calgary and David Zweig of the University of Toronto:
- o Question sophistication
- o Question consistency
- o Rapport buildings
What's the signalling theory?
Job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or signals about what it is like to work in an organization
Objective and Subjective Measures
The tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially good
The tendency to perceive the job performance of ratees as especially ineffective
What's Central Tendency?
The tendency to assign most ratees to middle-range job performance categories
What's Halo Effect?
The rating of an individual on one traits or characteristic tends to color ratings on other traits or characteristics
What's similar-to-me Effect?
A rater gives more favorable evaluations to people who are similar o the rater in terms of backgrounds or attitudes