Collapse

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Author:
gambit
ID:
243132
Filename:
Collapse
Updated:
2013-10-28 17:43:15
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Capt Test
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Description:
Collapse of Burning Building
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  1. How many FDNY firefighters have died between 1956 and 1986when burning buildings suddenly collapsed?
    46
  2. Who is considered the most effective person to investigate after a burning building collapses?
    Outside investigator
  3. What is the number one cause of fireground death according to the NFPA?
    Physical stress
  4. What is considered the life span of a building before it begins to deteriorate?
    75 to 100 years
  5. What level in leading causes of fireground death does burning building collapse rank?
    Fourth
  6. What should be conducted when a burning building collapse kills or seriously injures a firefighter?
    Post-fire investigation
  7. How many firefighters were lost when a stockyard building collapsed in Chicago, Illinois in 1910?
    21
  8. Which load is most resistant to collapse and carry the greatest load?
    Axial load
  9. What is the portion of the facade wall that extends above the roof level called?
    Parapet wall
  10. What is the top masonry tile or stone of a parapet wall?
    Coping stone
  11. Which type of beam supports has the least amount of structural stability during a fire?
    Cantilever
  12. Which type of floor collapse occurs when one end of the floor beams remains partially supported by the bearing wall and the other collapses onto the floor below?
    Lean-to
  13. What is the order of support when a wood beam is constructed around the perimeter of a floor opening?
    Trimmer, header, tail
  14. What is a static load created by the structure and all permanent fixtures?
    Dead
  15. In which type of construction do vertical timbers reinforce each of the four corners of the structure?
    Braced-frame
  16. What type of load is experienced by the opposite end of a steel girder when one end collapses?
    Torsional
  17. What type of load is the content of a floor used for storage?
    Static
  18. What is an extension of masonry that projects from a masonry wall?
    Corbel
  19. What is the corbel used on the inside of a masonry wall to support a beam called?
    Corbel ledge
  20. How much can a coping stone weigh?
    5 to 50 pounds
  21. What is a masonry column bonded to and built as an integral part of the inside of a masonry wall?
    Pilaster
  22. Which type of stress involves parts of the structure sliding past one another?
    Shear
  23. Which type of load is an explosion classified as?
    Impact
  24. What is the expected ground area that a falling wall will cover when it collapses?
    Vertical collapse zone
  25. Which type of floor collapse occurs when floor beams pull loose at both ends?
    Pancake
  26. What is at the top of the hierarchy of structural framing which would lead to a more serious collapse?
    Columns
  27. Which type of wall collapse resembles a tree falling over?
    Ninety-degree-angle
  28. What is a structural element that supports a floor or roof beam?
    Girder
  29. Which type of beam is supported at one end?
    Cantilever
  30. What is an internal force?
    Stress
  31. What is the horizontal surface covering supported by a floor beam?
    Deck
  32. What type of floor collapse occurs when an interior partition holds up the center of the fallen floor?
    Tent
  33. How thick is the sheet metal surface fastener?
    1/4-inch
  34. What is often used to support a joist?
    Girder
  35. Which type of load is transmitted off-center through a structural member?
    Eccentric
  36. What is a buttress that is constructed on the inside of a wall called?
    Pilaster
  37. How many pounds does a kip equal?
    1,000
  38. What type of collapse is caused when the burning portions of a taller building fall on to a smaller building?
    Secondary
  39. Which type of wall is a free-standing masonry wall surrounding an area?
    Area
  40. How will a non-bearing wall collapse during a fire in balloon frame construction?
    Outward at a 90 degree angle
  41. Which is considered the most dangerous type of load?
    Concentrated
  42. How many points of a continuous beam support system are supported?
    3
  43. What is the portion of an interior wall between the top of one window opening and the bottom of another?
    Spandrel wall
  44. What is used to reinforce the upper portion of a window opening?
    Lintel
  45. Which type of wood-frame residential construction is considered superior from a fire protection standpoint?
    Platform
  46. What is a disadvantage to firefighters of a fire cut beam?
    Early floor collapse
  47. What is the goal of using the fire cut beam?
    Save masonry wall
  48. What is the bending or curving of a structural element under fire conditions?
    Deflection
  49. How long are the parts of the sheet metal surface fasteners that act as nails?
    1/2-inch
  50. How does a braced-frame building wall often collapse during a fire?
    Inward/outward
  51. What is the minimum safety factor of most structural elements?
    2
  52. How long after fire exposure can an unprotected open-web steel bar joist collapse?
    5 to 10 minutes
  53. Which type of collapse tends to occur when the exterior wall breaks apart horizontally?
    Inward/outward
  54. What is used to reinforce an opening in the floor of a wood-frame building?
    Header beam
  55. Which of the following is a load applied at one point within a limited area of a structure?
    Concentrated
  56. What is the projecting, reduced portion of a timber which is designed to be inserted into the mortise hole of another timber?
    Tenon
  57. What is a horizontal structural member that is subject to compression, tension and shear forces?
    Beam
  58. What is a horizontal timber that frames the highest point of a peak roof?
    Ridgepole
  59. What direction in relation to the ground is a lateral load applied to an upright structure?
    Parallel
  60. What happens when the truss collapses?
    Large areas of roof deck collapse
  61. What prevent the firefighter from falling into the fire or the area below?
    Floor beams
  62. Which type of stress causes a steel column to fail when weakened by fire?
    Compression
  63. How many basic types of fire-resistive construction are there?
    2
  64. What size are the wood floor joists and roof joists in the wood-frame building?
    2 by 10 inches
  65. What is the method that fire extends to exposures during fires in heavy timber construction?
    Radiation
  66. What is the fire in a building of heavy timber construction sometimes called?
    Slow-burning
  67. What is the fire resistance rating for the exterior walls of heavy timber construction?
    2 hour
  68. Which walls of wood-frame construction buildings are generally bearing walls?
    Two side walls
  69. What is keeping the floor of a steel skeleton building from collapsing on the firefighters below?
    Supporting steel
  70. What helps to prevent firefighters from being killed by falling walls at a heavy timber building fire?
    Radiated heat
  71. What part of the non-combustible building can ignite during a fire and is considered the fire problem associated with that type of construction?
    Flat, steel roof deck
  72. How much fire exposure can cause a failure in a steel open-web bar joist roof?
    5 to 10 minutes
  73. Which type of construction was designed for textile mills during the last century?
    Heavy timber
  74. What can be said about the ratio of exposed surfaces to the total volume of wood in heavy timber construction buildings?
    It is small
  75. What range in temperature rise (degrees Fahrenheit) is considered acceptable when performing a fire resistance test?
    250 to 325
  76. What is the fire resistance rating of all elements of wood-frame construction?
    1 hour
  77. What makes the concealed spaces in an ordinary construction building different from those in fire-resistive buildings?
    Large amounts of combustible materials
  78. What change would allow the fire chief to remove any additional smoke from the fire-resistive building after automatic sprinklers have extinguished the fire?
    Emergency smoke control system
  79. What is the fire resistance rating of the exterior bearing walls for Type III construction?
    2 hours
  80. Which is the only type of construction that has combustible exterior walls?
    Wood-frame
  81. How many pounds of asphalt per 100 square feet of roof area does NFPA recommend as a maximum between the steel deck and the insulation?
    12 to 15
  82. What is the minimum thickness in any direction of wood columns for the building to classify as heavy timber construction?
    8 inches
  83. What is the structural hazard of an ordinary constructed building?
    Parapet wall
  84. How many sides must be considered when fighting a fire in a wood-frame building?
    7
  85. What is the minimum thickness of any girder used in heavy timber construction?
    6 inches
  86. What has been installed in most heavy timber buildings that have survived to the twentieth century?
    Automatic sprinklers
  87. What concept has been eliminated in the fire-resistive building with the use of the central air conditioning system?
    Compartmentation
  88. What sample size is used to determine fire-resistance ratings?
    18 feet by 14 feet
  89. What is NFPA's recommendation for the construction of the roof on the non-combustible building in terms of hot asphalt mopping?
    Strip mopping
  90. How many different types of steel roof support systems are available for the non-combustible building?
    3
  91. What is the asphalt used for when constructing a flat,steel roof?
    Waterproofing
  92. What is the collapse danger to a firefighter in anon-combustible building?
    Roof cave-in
  93. Which direction do concrete floors explode in a steel skeleton building of fire-resistive construction?
    Upward
  94. What is an optimal distance between wood frame buildings to attempt to prevent fire extension?
    10 to 20 feet
  95. What expands within the concrete to cause it to spall during fire conditions?
    Moisture
  96. What is the major fire problem in a fire-resistive building?
    Central air conditioning system
  97. What size studs are used to construct the bearing wall in wood-frame construction?
    2 by 4 inch
  98. How far will the concrete floor move when it erupts during a fire in steel skeleton construction?
    6 to 12 inches
  99. What is the strategy that needs to be used when battling an advanced fire at a heavy timber building?
    Withdraw to protect exposures
  100. How many layers of asphalt are generally used when constructing a roof on a non-combustible building?
    3
  101. Where does the collapse danger lie in fire-resistive buildings?
    Concrete
  102. What direction would the wall fall if one of the masonry walls starts to fall and the brick arches spanning the tops of the wall openings crumble and fall apart?
    Downward
  103. How many different ways are there for a masonry exterior building wall to collapse?
    3
  104. If there is no brick bonding on a masonry wall, where may the wall split apart?
    At the corner
  105. What is the most common type of masonry wall failure?
    90-degree-angle
  106. What hazard exists when a masonry wall leans inward?
    Inward/outward collapse
  107. Which of the following generally occurs first when a masonry wall collapses in a 90-degree-angle fall due to fire conditions?
    Interior collapse of all floors
  108. Where should the company consider operating a hose when the collapse zone is greater than the reach of the hose stream?
    From the side
  109. How will the front wall collapse when there is a timber truss roof collapse?
    Inward/outward
  110. How long after the bulge was discovered at the New York City fire on November 26, 1977 did the 125-foot stone parapet wall crash to the sidewalk in one wave?
    35 minutes
  111. What should be done when an aerial device must be lifted when the tip is obscured by smoke and it is near a parapet wall?
    Raise it upwards several feet
  112. What is holding the capstone in place if the mortar is allowed to lose its adhesive qualities?
    Gravity
  113. What can cause the entire parapet wall to collapse as one piece?
    Steel reinforcement
  114. What caused the parapet wall to come down at the fire in New York City on November 26, 1977?
    Expansion of a steel girder
  115. Which of the following is considered the most dangerous parapet wall?
    On supermarket
  116. Which of the following parapet walls is more likely to cause additional damage when it collapses?
    Bearing
  117. When did the parapet wall collapse that killed six FDNY firefighters occur?
    During overhaul
  118. What is placed on the top of the parapet wall to help prevent rain water from getting into the wall?
    Coping stone
  119. How many FDNY firefighters were killed on April 4, 1956 when a parapet wall collapsed?
    6
  120. What often hides the round rooftop of one-story commercial structures?
    Parapet wall on the front and rear of the building
  121. What should be anticipated when a serious fire takes control of a large under side of a bowstring truss roof that has sloping hip rafters extending from end trusses to the front and rear parapet walls?
    A roof collapse followed instantly by an explosive front and rear parapet wall collapse
  122. What is NOT used to make a capstone for the parapet wall?
    Steel
  123. What is one of the most dangerous walls that a firefighter can encounter at a fire?
    Masonry parapet
  124. What happens when the roof collapses and there is a marquee attached to the parapet wall?
    The weight shifts to the parapet wall
  125. Which type of parapet wall receives its stability from other portions of the structure?
    Free-standing
  126. What does the weight of the timber truss roof shift to the front and rear parapet walls through?
    Hip roof rafters
  127. What contributed to structural failure at the Boston collapse of 1972 and the New York City collapse of 1966?
    Unauthorized alterations
  128. What is the most common material used to construct floors in brick-and-joist construction?
    Wood
  129. Which type of floor collapse will trap a firefighter within the floor deck?
    Wood deck burns through and collapses
  130. How many firefighters were killed on October 17, 1966 in a drug store on East Twenty-Third Street in New York City when the floor collapsed?
    12
  131. What configuration did the floors fall in at the Boston hotel fire in 1972?
    V-shape and lean-to
  132. Which type of floor collapse is the most devastating type?
    Failure of a column supporting a girder
  133. Which is the one room in a residence that is frequently subject to floor joist collapse?
    Bathroom
  134. What is the cause of floor collapse often?
    Arson
  135. How would a floor deck appear when it has been weakened by fire?
    Spongy
  136. What is the path of least resistance through a residential building?
    Bathroom floor
  137. How many firefighters were crushed when five floors of a Boston hotel collapsed on June 17, 1972?
    9
  138. What type of collapse is it generally when the floor in a bathroom collapses?
    Local
  139. Which is considered a critical cause of bathroom floor joist collapse?
    Fire destruction
  140. What should be done to vent the building when firefighters are operating at a private home with a sloping roof?
    Use top-floor windows
  141. How many walls have sloping sides on the hip roof?
    4
  142. What should be done when a roof with a pitch of 5 in 12 in encountered?
    Use a secured roof ladder
  143. Which is a less common type of sloping roof?
    A.) Saltbox
    B.) Gambrel
    C.) Hip
    D.) Gable
    Saltbox
  144. How many walls have sloping sides on the gable roof?
    2
  145. How much can one two inch thick slate shingle weigh?
    10 pounds
  146. What pitch of roof warrants the use of an extended aerial ladder?
    13 in 12
  147. How many men were working on the roof of the August 31,1982 fire in the Bronx, New York?
    3
  148. What is considered a built-up roof covering?
    Tar and gravel
  149. How far apart on center were the heavy timber trusses spaced of the fire building in Yonkers, New York on March 13, 1984?
    15 feet
  150. What part of the sloping roof is most susceptible to rotting?
    Edges
  151. What is NOT a common type of wood construction used for sloping roofs?
    Decking
  152. How does the tile roof collapse?
    In one large section without any warning signs
  153. What is considered a prepared roof covering?
    Wood
  154. What is a primary structural member in wood floor construction?
    Trimmer beams
  155. How far apart may the plank-and-beam roof have a lattice spaced?
    6 inches
  156. Which of the following sloping rooftops is the safest to walk on?
    A.) Decking
    B.) Rafter
    C.) Plank-and-beam
    D.) Timber truss
    Rafter
  157. How many hose streams should be tried before calling for an exterior attack on the timber truss roof fire building?
    1
  158. When does the firefighter perform size-up?
    During the entire operation
  159. Where will the main fire be located in a timber truss building?
    Roof structure
  160. How far will the water stream be capable of reaching when battling a timber truss roof fire where no ceiling is present?
    50 feet
  161. Where can vent openings be made in the bowstring truss roof to provide horizontal cross-ventilation?
    Front and rear sloping portions of the roof
  162. How will timber trusses fail when dry-wall plaster board is applied as a fire-retarder?
    One section at a time
  163. How many bearing walls does a bowstring truss roof have?
    4
  164. What is the minimum size of timber construction?
    2 by 4 inches
  165. What size section of the truss roof will collapse if there are fire stopping materials, the building is 100 by 100 feet with truss sections 20 feet on center and one section fails?
    4,000-square-foot
  166. Where should firefighters be positioned when attempting the initial hose line attack?
    Behind a truss section next to the one involved in fire
  167. What part of the bowstring truss roof is supported by the side walls?
    Ends of truss sections
  168. Where should the second line be placed when an interior attack proves successful?
    Highest point of the truss roof
  169. Where will the typical fire inside a structure with a bowstring truss roof originate?
    Contents at floor level
  170. What type of strategy should be taken when a truss roof is identified early in the operation?
    Defensive
  171. What type of stress does the split-ring metal connector relieve?
    Shearing
  172. What is the most common design of the timber truss roof?
    Bowstring
  173. Where do firefighting procedures state that the roof vent should be made?
    Directly over the fire
  174. What does the safety man do to ensure the cutting firefighter that the path is clear?
    Keeps a hand on his back
  175. What is the smaller wood framework that is built up above the main roof supports?
    Inverted roof
  176. What spacing is used for an open-web steel bar joist flat roof?
    3 to 4 feet on center
  177. What is considered the most stable flat roof?
    Solid wood beam
  178. What spacing is used for a parallel chord wood truss flat roof?
    24 inches on center
  179. How long after in a fully developed fire can it be expected that the parallel chord wood truss roof will fail?
    10 minutes
  180. What type of information does the firefighter need to have to determine a roof's stability?
    Knowledge of the roof's construction
  181. What method of support is a corbel shelf?
    Unrestrained
  182. What size framework does the raised roof contain?
    2 by 4 inch
  183. What is placed over a hole in the roof sometimes that makes it an extreme hazard for the firefighter?
    Roofing paper
  184. Which type of connections is the basis for having firefighters walk near the parapet wall on a fire weakened roof?
    Restrained
  185. What spacing is used for the solid beam flat roof?
    16 inches on center
  186. What is a scuttle cover equated to?
    Roof decking
  187. What is a beam which is designed to release under fire conditions?
    Fire cut
  188. What connects the truss of the parallel chord wood truss roof?
    Gusset plates
  189. What is the best thing for a disoriented firefighter to do if there is no immediate danger while on the roof?
    Remain in place until oriented
  190. Where is the shaft that separates the attached buildings when a party wall is present?
    Rear
  191. What should be considered in a fire building with an unprotected lightweight steel roof when venting is required to advance the hoseline?
    Horizontal venting
  192. What is most often the reason that a roof failure is not anticipated during the size-up?
    Change in the roof joist system
  193. What is the maximum distance that open-web steel bar joists can be spaced?
    8 feet
  194. What degree angles is the steel bar of a lightweight steel open-web bar joist bent?
    90
  195. When did an increase in the use of lightweight structural steel begin?
    1950's
  196. What is the principal danger to a firefighter in a burning non-combustible structure that contains unprotected steel?
    Potential for collapse
  197. What load capacity may a roof designed to only support a snow roof have?
    20 pounds per square foot
  198. At what angle should the pull cut be made when venting a lightweight steel roof?
    45-degree
  199. How much can the length of a steel member be increased when it is heated to 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit?
    1 inch in 10 feet
  200. What is considered to be a safe spacing of wood joists for roof ventilation operations?
    16 to 24 inches on center
  201. At what temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) does steel lose 40% of its load-carrying capacity?
    1,100
  202. Which of the following roof deck materials is heavier and may reduce a firefighter's safe operating time on top of or below an unprotected steel roof?
    Precast concrete plank
  203. What is the final factor which can affect steel failure?
    Fire size
  204. What is the fire resistive rating that can be achieved for the lightweight steel bar joist when it is encased in an insulating material?
    4 hours
  205. How long after exposure to fire may the unprotected steel bar joist collapse?
    5 to 10 minutes
  206. What type of non-bearing enclosure walls do buildings of non-combustible construction have?
    Masonry or steel
  207. What is the average response time of the average urban fire company?
    5 minutes
  208. How many factors determine the speed with which unprotected steel will fail during a fire?
    4
  209. How much of the total temperature rise attained after eight hours is reached at ten minutes?
    Over one-half
  210. What direction in relation to the solid beam will fire be slowed when fire is in the concealed space?
    Perpendicular
  211. Which of the following is used to connect heavy timber truss chords?
    Steel bolts and plates
  212. When was the first known firefighter death from being trapped by the collapse of a lightweight wood truss?
    1984
  213. How far into the wood does the gusset plate penetrate?
    1/2 inch
  214. What is the main concern of the fire service about the lightweight wood truss roof?
    Use of gusset plates
  215. What is the wood dimensions of heavy timber generally?
    4 inches wide and 6 inches deep
  216. What is the smallest size of the wooden members that can be used in lightweight wood truss roofs?
    2 inches wide and 4 inches deep
  217. What is the most important first step when rescuing firefighters trapped beneath a collapsed ceiling?
    Sweep collapse area above the ceiling with a hose line
  218. Where should rescue attempts be made if firefighters are trapped at the rear of the store?
    Adjoining stores
  219. What part of a suspended ceiling pins and traps a firefighter when it collapses?
    Grid system
  220. What is the first part of the ceiling that must be cut when a suspended ceiling collapses?
    Grid system
  221. How much can the ceiling grid framework weigh in the suspended ceiling?
    Thousands of pounds
  222. How much per square foot does the metal grid system with permanently affixed wire lath ceiling weigh?
    10 pounds
  223. What is most often the cause of the affixed ceiling collapse?
    Absorption of water
  224. What is the cause of death when a ceiling collapses on the firefighter?
    Fire or smoke
  225. How much per square foot does a lightweight metal grid panel ceiling weigh?
    1 pound
  226. What causes the immediate large increase in fire when the wood grid suspended ceiling collapses?
    Influx of fresh air
  227. What effect is achieved when a second ceiling is constructed?
    Honeycomb
  228. Which of the following is the most common type of material used in a ceiling that is directly affixed?
    Wet gypsum
  229. Where is the sometimes a rapid increase in fire immediately after a wood grid suspended ceiling collapses?
    Space directly over the fallen ceiling
  230. How many stories of collapsing stone intermediate landings have firefighters crashed through?
    4 and 5
  231. When do intermediate landings made of stone on steel-framed U-return stairs most often collapse?
    s the firefighter descends the stair
  232. What is the most frequent cause of collapse of a U-return steel stair?
    Failure of a stone stair tread
  233. What size angle-iron edge is used with the steel frame on a steel U-return stair?
    1-inch
  234. What location do some fire departments require the firs those line to be laid due to its safety factor?
    Stairway
  235. What is the structural support of the stair tread or landing of the steel U-return stairway?
    Two-inch thickness of marble
  236. Where should the firefighter stay when climbing a sagging, fire-weakened wooden stair?
    Near the wall
  237. What deciding factor determines if a stair will collapse?
    Stair design
  238. Where have the most serious injuries occurred to firefighters in relation to stairways?
    Intermediate landing collapse
  239. What does the U-return stair increase?
    Floor space for residential use
  240. What are the treads and landings constructed from on U-return stairs that sustain most intermediate landing collapse?
    Stone unsupported by a steel pan
  241. Where is an L-shaped stair most often found?
    Private home
  242. At what degree angle does a straight-run stair provide uninterrupted passage between two floors?
    45 or 60
  243. What are soffits usually made of?
    Wire lath and plaster
  244. What are straight run stairs most often constructed from?
    Wood
  245. Which type of straight-run stairs does a person walk up one flight of stairs to the floor above and then reverses direction?
    Stacked
  246. Which type of stairs in masonry enclosures as a general rule will not fail if the floor of the building does?
    U-shaped
  247. What is the type of stair preferred in modern building construction?
    U-return
  248. Which part of a steel-framed U-return stairway tends to collapse more readily?
    Landings
  249. How many firefighters has it been estimated have been injured in the past decade by collapsing stairways, landings and treads?
    More than 2,000
  250. How many sections will a wooden, stacked, straight-run stairway collapse in if the carriage beam supports are weakened by fire?
    1
  251. Where in relation to the fire should the victim be brought back inside from the fire escape?
    Below
  252. How many classifications can fire escapes be placed into?
    3
  253. How many thin bars may be available for a handrail on the standard fire escape?
    1
  254. What should be used to remove victims when they are on the lowest level of the counterbalance stairway?
    Department ground ladder
  255. Where should the firefighter place his feet on the step of the fire escape to reduce deflection?
    Side
  256. What is the cause of most firefighter injuries on fire escapes?
    Step failure
  257. How does the captain want to force entry into the fourth floor fire apartment to minimize damage?
    Through the window
  258. What often times causes a party balcony to collapse?
    Overloading
  259. How many people can descend down the exterior screened stairway together?
    Two side by side
  260. What is accessible via a party balcony?
    Adjoining occupancy
  261. What is the best location to place the ladder when using it to remove victims from a party balcony?
    Leaned against the building next to the fire escape
  262. Which is the safest type of fire escape?
    Exterior screened stairway
  263. What angle can the drop down ladder of the standard fire escape be placed at?
    60 to 75 degrees
  264. What is a counterbalance stairway balanced on?
    Pivot
  265. Which type of construction is considered superior from a fire protection standpoint?
    Platform
  266. Which walls on more modern residential construction are the bearing walls?
    Front and rear
  267. Which type of collapse is often times NOT preceded with a warning other than a serious fire burning for a long time on the lower floor?
    Inward/outward
  268. What are the large timbers placed at each corner of the braced-frame building called?
    Posts
  269. Which major type of wood-frame construction is the most dangerous for firefighters?
    Brace-framed
  270. What is the most widely used method of wood-frame construction today?
    Platform
  271. Where will hose lines need to be placed to protect from radiant heat exposure when fighting a fire at a wood-frame building?
    Exterior
  272. How does a three-story braced frame structure frequently fall?
    Inward/outward collapse
  273. How many different ways are there in which a wood-frame building can collapse?
    3
  274. What are the corner posts and girders connected with on the braced-frame wooden constructed building?
    Mortise-and-tenon joints
  275. What is often the signal that the 90-degree angle wall collapse is going to happen?
    Corners of the wall splitting apart from the remaining walls
  276. Which type of construction became popular as the population moved westward?
    Balloon frame
  277. How often are the thin strips of sheet metal applied to the exterior of the wooden wall when applying a brick veneer?
    Every 2 square feet
  278. How many walls will generally fall during a fire in a structure with masonry walls?
    1
  279. How is the platform method of construction carried out?
    One level is built at a time
  280. Which type of building collapse is considered the most dangerous?
    Inward/outward
  281. What type of load is exerted on the wall studs to which the fire escape is anchored?
    Eccentric
  282. How many walls maximum can be involved in an inward/outward collapse?
    4
  283. What direction does the concrete fly when an explosive spalling occurs?
    Downward
  284. How many floors below the most recently constructed floor is the standpipe riser supposed to be during the construction process?
    1 or 2
  285. Where is the enclosure wall built from?
    The outside
  286. Within what time frame do construction engineers say the entire concrete floor can collapse on firefighters if the wood form work below has been destroyed by fire?
    24 hours
  287. What do the most serious fires at construction sites involve?
    Combustible formwork
  288. What size timbers are used as columns, girders and beams in formwork?
    Four-by-four-inch
  289. What is done to protect smaller adjacent buildings from falling objects during a fire in a building under construction?
    Cover the roof with two-by-eight-inch heavy wood timbers
  290. What position are the control valves on the standpipe system often installed in?
    Open
  291. At what building height do some states have a law that requires a stem and yoke control valve be installed on the outside of the building?
    150 feet or 15 stories
  292. Above what floor must the vertical standpipe system be installed in buildings under construction in many states?
    Seventh
  293. Where are the controls located for the materials and equipment elevator on the construction site?
    Ground level
  294. How many steel cables support the materials and equipment elevator at the construction site?
    1 or 2
  295. How long after the concrete has been poured is the formwork removed to being making another floor during a "fast-track" construction project?
    48 hours
  296. Who should the firefighter consult with before removing supporting members of formwork during overhaul operations?
    Shoring foreman
  297. After how many days does concrete reach its maximum strength?
    27
  298. Which type of concrete building is built on the site,floor by floor?
    Cast-in-place
  299. Which type of concrete structures experience the most serious and greatest number of fire nationwide?
    Cast-in-place
  300. What will be the major cause of fire extension of a formwork fire in a cast-in-place building under construction?
    Burning timbers
  301. What size timbers are used to construct scaffolding?
    Two-by-eight-inch
  302. How thick can the layer of concrete be that falls as a result of spalling?
    3 or 4 inches
  303. What is needed on the standpipe riser to allow for adequate pressure in the system?
    Cap
  304. Which control valve on the standpipe is often overlooked when they must be closed during operations?
    Basement
  305. What type of strength is afforded to the building by the concrete?
    Compressive
  306. Where should master streams NOT be located when there is a great potential for wall collapse beyond the collapse zone?
    In front of the building
  307. How much water does the average master stream deliver into a burning building?
    500 gpm
  308. What sound is heard when the master stream strikes the side wall of a wood building?
    Drumming
  309. What sound is heard when a master stream enters a window?
    Rumbling
  310. Who is often the first to recognize water build-up on a floor or roof?
    Those operating elevated streams
  311. Where is the master stream being operated from an aerial platform most effective?
    Placed close to the window
  312. How far from an unstable wall should the tip of the aerial ladder be kept away?
    Equal to the height of the wall above
  313. What sound is heard when the master stream strikes a brick wall hidden in smoke?
    Splattering
  314. How many parapet walls make the roof more prone to water build-up?
    4
  315. What should a master stream NOT be directed at?
    Smoke
  316. How many feet per second does the water move out of the nozzle of a master stream?
    100
  317. Where is the destructive pressure of a master stream greatest?
    Where the water leaves the nozzle
  318. What is the most important change in the design and use of the master stream?
    It is no longer restricted to the ground level
  319. How many pounds of water per minute can be discharged from the average master stream?
    4,000
  320. Where should the master stream be positioned when fighting fire in the concealed spaces above suspended ceilings to be most effective?
    Below the ceiling
  321. What is the minimum size solid-stream nozzle which is considered to be a master stream?
    1 1/2 inches
  322. What is a main disadvantage of using master streams?
    Large volumes of water used
  323. What should be done if it is determined that the structure is not safe after master stream operations have concluded?
    Establish a watch line
  324. What does the master stream strike when it is directed from window to window on a burning masonry building?
    Brick wall between openings
  325. What should be cut through when looking for victims in a supported lean-to collapse?
    Floor
  326. During which stage of rescue is there little chance of survival?
    General debris removal
  327. Who should orders be given to when conducting a collapse rescue effort?
    Officers
  328. What is the first duty of the fire officer in command when a collapse occurs?
    Determine who is missing
  329. What is the first step of the standard collapse rescue plan?
    Survey the site of collapse
  330. What is one of the most important objectives of a collapse rescue operation?
    Control and organization
  331. Where may victims be found in a tent collapse?
    Near the partition wall
  332. Where may victims be found in an unsupported lean-to void?
    Beneath the floor near the bearing wall
  333. Where should the observer be placed when shoring is used at an unstable structure?
    At the point of the shoring
  334. Where will victims from the floor above be found with a V-shape collapse?
    In the center of the V
  335. What increases the chances of a secondary collapse?
    Firefighters work and move about the fallen building
  336. What creates void spaces in a pancake collapse?
    Large pieces of furniture
  337. What is the last step in the standard collapse rescue plan?
    Start general debris removal to clear the entire collapse rubble
  338. What are the buildings called by FDNY which are located in "Hell's hundred acres"?
    Loft building
  339. Which safety precaution is directed during a collapse or explosion, where firefighters are searching the rubble of a weakened structure for victims?
    Assignment of a monitor
  340. Who is the roped off area meant to keep out?
    Civilians, firefighters and officers
  341. What makes an emergency evacuation a confusing time?
    It is a rare occurrence
  342. What collapsing may affect the stability of the dividing wall?
    Roof
  343. What is the horizontal collapse danger zone equal to?
    The length of the wall
  344. How high above the ground should the rope be placed when roping off a danger area?
    Waist or chest high
  345. What would most likely be done if there is a partially collapsed cornice when firefighters arrive and there is a need for search and rescue operations first?
    Place a spotlight on it
  346. How much floor joist end should be supported by the girder as a minimum?
    2 inches
  347. Where do secondary steel floor support beams of fire-resistive steel skeleton buildings separate during fire?
    From the girder at the connection
  348. Which collapses should be noted on the fire fact sheet completed during the post-fire analysis?
    All of them should be noted
  349. What is used to indicate the nozzle of the hose line on the fire diagram?
    Arrow
  350. Which abbreviation is used to indicate a non-combustible building construction on the fire diagram?
    NC
  351. What is the most important type of strategy that the fireground commander should be able to put into use?
    Firefighting
  352. How many separate channels would be called for in the fire communication plan?
    2
  353. Where should exposure 1 be located on the fire diagram?
    Bottom of the page
  354. What is indicated in the lower left hand corner of the fire diagram?
    Construction type, height in stories, width and length
  355. What shape is used to indicate the pumper on the fire diagram?
    Rectangle
  356. How much space was opened up when truss 5 collapsed at the Brooklyn supermarket fire in 1978?
    4,000 square feet
  357. Which part of the post-fire analysis should be completed when the fire scene will be cleaned up the next day?
    Photo documentation
  358. When should the post-fire analysis take place?
    As soon as the fire has been extinguished
  359. What letter is drawn next to the fatality symbol if the firefighter was found face down?
    P
  360. What allows for rapid fire spread between wood-frame buildings?
    Combustible exterior walls with small horizontal separations between buildings
  361. What is one of the most important size-up duties of first-in chiefs?
    Determine location and severity of fire
  362. How many different view points should each photograph be taken from?
    2
  363. How many bowstring timber trusses were in the Brooklyn supermarket which collapsed in 1978?
    7
  364. What will collapse first on the fully involved burning heavy timber constructed building?
    Floor
  365. Who should perform the post-fire analysis?
    Chief officer
  366. What is the first thing that should be photographed when dealing with a firefighter fatality?
    Close-up of the spot
  367. What is the most important strategy and tactical consideration at a fire?
    Water supply and pressure
  368. How many general types of construction are in use today?
    5
  369. Which entity has in the past conducted investigations into fires after the fact, but from a property protection point of view?
    Insurance companies
  370. How many skilled individuals are needed to complete the photographic documentation step of the post-fire analysis?
    2
  371. What shape is used with shockwaves indicating the area of shockwaves from an explosion on the fire diagram?
    Circle
  372. What is the post-incident analysis?
    Safety, strategy, tactics and safety investigation from the fireground commander's point of view
  373. What percentage of the time can the point of origin be easily determined by a close examination of the fire area?
    99%
  374. What symbol is used to indicate the fire's point of origin?
    Greek cross
  375. What should be the first thing that is photographed during the third step of the post-fire analysis?
    Exposures
  376. What is used to indicate wind direction on the fire diagram?
    Line with an arrowhead indicating wind direction
  377. What is used to create the strategies used today?
    Company tactics
  378. Which is considered the most important part of the post-fire analysis?
    Photographic documentation
  379. What symbol is used to indicate an area where an explosion or collapse occurred?
    Crossed diagonal lines
  380. How many pictures should be usable for the photographic presentation part of the post-fire analysis?
    25
  381. What was the distance from the floor space to the underside of the truss roof in the Brooklyn supermarket fire of 1978?
    26 feet
  382. What was the reason that the fire's exact location was not identifiable in the fire that killed 12 FDNY firefighters in 1966?
    Alterations
  383. What is the second thing that needs to be determined when completing the fire fact sheet?
    Cause of the fire
  384. During which stages of fire do most burning building collapses occur within?
    Second and third
  385. What collapses instantaneously in wood-frame buildings?
    Bearing wall and floor
  386. What should be photographed after the cause of the explosion has been recorded on film?
    Structural damage that resulted

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