How many FDNY firefighters have died between 1956 and 1986when burning buildings suddenly collapsed?
Who is considered the most effective person to investigate after a burning building collapses?
What is the number one cause of fireground death according to the NFPA?
What is considered the life span of a building before it begins to deteriorate?
75 to 100 years
What level in leading causes of fireground death does burning building collapse rank?
What should be conducted when a burning building collapse kills or seriously injures a firefighter?
How many firefighters were lost when a stockyard building collapsed in Chicago, Illinois in 1910?
Which load is most resistant to collapse and carry the greatest load?
What is the portion of the facade wall that extends above the roof level called?
What is the top masonry tile or stone of a parapet wall?
Which type of beam supports has the least amount of structural stability during a fire?
Which type of floor collapse occurs when one end of the floor beams remains partially supported by the bearing wall and the other collapses onto the floor below?
What is the order of support when a wood beam is constructed around the perimeter of a floor opening?
Trimmer, header, tail
What is a static load created by the structure and all permanent fixtures?
In which type of construction do vertical timbers reinforce each of the four corners of the structure?
What type of load is experienced by the opposite end of a steel girder when one end collapses?
What type of load is the content of a floor used for storage?
What is an extension of masonry that projects from a masonry wall?
What is the corbel used on the inside of a masonry wall to support a beam called?
How much can a coping stone weigh?
5 to 50 pounds
What is a masonry column bonded to and built as an integral part of the inside of a masonry wall?
Which type of stress involves parts of the structure sliding past one another?
Which type of load is an explosion classified as?
What is the expected ground area that a falling wall will cover when it collapses?
Vertical collapse zone
Which type of floor collapse occurs when floor beams pull loose at both ends?
What is at the top of the hierarchy of structural framing which would lead to a more serious collapse?
Which type of wall collapse resembles a tree falling over?
What is a structural element that supports a floor or roof beam?
Which type of beam is supported at one end?
What is an internal force?
What is the horizontal surface covering supported by a floor beam?
What type of floor collapse occurs when an interior partition holds up the center of the fallen floor?
How thick is the sheet metal surface fastener?
What is often used to support a joist?
Which type of load is transmitted off-center through a structural member?
What is a buttress that is constructed on the inside of a wall called?
How many pounds does a kip equal?
What type of collapse is caused when the burning portions of a taller building fall on to a smaller building?
Which type of wall is a free-standing masonry wall surrounding an area?
How will a non-bearing wall collapse during a fire in balloon frame construction?
Outward at a 90 degree angle
Which is considered the most dangerous type of load?
How many points of a continuous beam support system are supported?
What is the portion of an interior wall between the top of one window opening and the bottom of another?
What is used to reinforce the upper portion of a window opening?
Which type of wood-frame residential construction is considered superior from a fire protection standpoint?
What is a disadvantage to firefighters of a fire cut beam?
Early floor collapse
What is the goal of using the fire cut beam?
Save masonry wall
What is the bending or curving of a structural element under fire conditions?
How long are the parts of the sheet metal surface fasteners that act as nails?
How does a braced-frame building wall often collapse during a fire?
What is the minimum safety factor of most structural elements?
How long after fire exposure can an unprotected open-web steel bar joist collapse?
5 to 10 minutes
Which type of collapse tends to occur when the exterior wall breaks apart horizontally?
What is used to reinforce an opening in the floor of a wood-frame building?
Which of the following is a load applied at one point within a limited area of a structure?
What is the projecting, reduced portion of a timber which is designed to be inserted into the mortise hole of another timber?
What is a horizontal structural member that is subject to compression, tension and shear forces?
What is a horizontal timber that frames the highest point of a peak roof?
What direction in relation to the ground is a lateral load applied to an upright structure?
What happens when the truss collapses?
Large areas of roof deck collapse
What prevent the firefighter from falling into the fire or the area below?
Which type of stress causes a steel column to fail when weakened by fire?
How many basic types of fire-resistive construction are there?
What size are the wood floor joists and roof joists in the wood-frame building?
2 by 10 inches
What is the method that fire extends to exposures during fires in heavy timber construction?
What is the fire in a building of heavy timber construction sometimes called?
What is the fire resistance rating for the exterior walls of heavy timber construction?
Which walls of wood-frame construction buildings are generally bearing walls?
Two side walls
What is keeping the floor of a steel skeleton building from collapsing on the firefighters below?
What helps to prevent firefighters from being killed by falling walls at a heavy timber building fire?
What part of the non-combustible building can ignite during a fire and is considered the fire problem associated with that type of construction?
Flat, steel roof deck
How much fire exposure can cause a failure in a steel open-web bar joist roof?
5 to 10 minutes
Which type of construction was designed for textile mills during the last century?
What can be said about the ratio of exposed surfaces to the total volume of wood in heavy timber construction buildings?
It is small
What range in temperature rise (degrees Fahrenheit) is considered acceptable when performing a fire resistance test?
250 to 325
What is the fire resistance rating of all elements of wood-frame construction?
What makes the concealed spaces in an ordinary construction building different from those in fire-resistive buildings?
Large amounts of combustible materials
What change would allow the fire chief to remove any additional smoke from the fire-resistive building after automatic sprinklers have extinguished the fire?
Emergency smoke control system
What is the fire resistance rating of the exterior bearing walls for Type III construction?
Which is the only type of construction that has combustible exterior walls?
How many pounds of asphalt per 100 square feet of roof area does NFPA recommend as a maximum between the steel deck and the insulation?
12 to 15
What is the minimum thickness in any direction of wood columns for the building to classify as heavy timber construction?
What is the structural hazard of an ordinary constructed building?
How many sides must be considered when fighting a fire in a wood-frame building?
What is the minimum thickness of any girder used in heavy timber construction?
What has been installed in most heavy timber buildings that have survived to the twentieth century?
What concept has been eliminated in the fire-resistive building with the use of the central air conditioning system?
What sample size is used to determine fire-resistance ratings?
18 feet by 14 feet
What is NFPA's recommendation for the construction of the roof on the non-combustible building in terms of hot asphalt mopping?
How many different types of steel roof support systems are available for the non-combustible building?
What is the asphalt used for when constructing a flat,steel roof?
What is the collapse danger to a firefighter in anon-combustible building?
Which direction do concrete floors explode in a steel skeleton building of fire-resistive construction?
What is an optimal distance between wood frame buildings to attempt to prevent fire extension?
10 to 20 feet
What expands within the concrete to cause it to spall during fire conditions?
What is the major fire problem in a fire-resistive building?
Central air conditioning system
What size studs are used to construct the bearing wall in wood-frame construction?
2 by 4 inch
How far will the concrete floor move when it erupts during a fire in steel skeleton construction?
6 to 12 inches
What is the strategy that needs to be used when battling an advanced fire at a heavy timber building?
Withdraw to protect exposures
How many layers of asphalt are generally used when constructing a roof on a non-combustible building?
Where does the collapse danger lie in fire-resistive buildings?
What direction would the wall fall if one of the masonry walls starts to fall and the brick arches spanning the tops of the wall openings crumble and fall apart?
How many different ways are there for a masonry exterior building wall to collapse?
If there is no brick bonding on a masonry wall, where may the wall split apart?
At the corner
What is the most common type of masonry wall failure?
What hazard exists when a masonry wall leans inward?
Which of the following generally occurs first when a masonry wall collapses in a 90-degree-angle fall due to fire conditions?
Interior collapse of all floors
Where should the company consider operating a hose when the collapse zone is greater than the reach of the hose stream?
From the side
How will the front wall collapse when there is a timber truss roof collapse?
How long after the bulge was discovered at the New York City fire on November 26, 1977 did the 125-foot stone parapet wall crash to the sidewalk in one wave?
What should be done when an aerial device must be lifted when the tip is obscured by smoke and it is near a parapet wall?
Raise it upwards several feet
What is holding the capstone in place if the mortar is allowed to lose its adhesive qualities?
What can cause the entire parapet wall to collapse as one piece?
What caused the parapet wall to come down at the fire in New York City on November 26, 1977?
Expansion of a steel girder
Which of the following is considered the most dangerous parapet wall?
Which of the following parapet walls is more likely to cause additional damage when it collapses?
When did the parapet wall collapse that killed six FDNY firefighters occur?
What is placed on the top of the parapet wall to help prevent rain water from getting into the wall?
How many FDNY firefighters were killed on April 4, 1956 when a parapet wall collapsed?
What often hides the round rooftop of one-story commercial structures?
Parapet wall on the front and rear of the building
What should be anticipated when a serious fire takes control of a large under side of a bowstring truss roof that has sloping hip rafters extending from end trusses to the front and rear parapet walls?
A roof collapse followed instantly by an explosive front and rear parapet wall collapse
What is NOT used to make a capstone for the parapet wall?
What is one of the most dangerous walls that a firefighter can encounter at a fire?
What happens when the roof collapses and there is a marquee attached to the parapet wall?
The weight shifts to the parapet wall
Which type of parapet wall receives its stability from other portions of the structure?
What does the weight of the timber truss roof shift to the front and rear parapet walls through?
Hip roof rafters
What contributed to structural failure at the Boston collapse of 1972 and the New York City collapse of 1966?
What is the most common material used to construct floors in brick-and-joist construction?
Which type of floor collapse will trap a firefighter within the floor deck?
Wood deck burns through and collapses
How many firefighters were killed on October 17, 1966 in a drug store on East Twenty-Third Street in New York City when the floor collapsed?
What configuration did the floors fall in at the Boston hotel fire in 1972?
V-shape and lean-to
Which type of floor collapse is the most devastating type?
Failure of a column supporting a girder
Which is the one room in a residence that is frequently subject to floor joist collapse?
What is the cause of floor collapse often?
How would a floor deck appear when it has been weakened by fire?
What is the path of least resistance through a residential building?
How many firefighters were crushed when five floors of a Boston hotel collapsed on June 17, 1972?
What type of collapse is it generally when the floor in a bathroom collapses?
Which is considered a critical cause of bathroom floor joist collapse?
What should be done to vent the building when firefighters are operating at a private home with a sloping roof?
Use top-floor windows
How many walls have sloping sides on the hip roof?
What should be done when a roof with a pitch of 5 in 12 in encountered?
Use a secured roof ladder
Which is a less common type of sloping roof?
How many walls have sloping sides on the gable roof?
How much can one two inch thick slate shingle weigh?
What pitch of roof warrants the use of an extended aerial ladder?
13 in 12
How many men were working on the roof of the August 31,1982 fire in the Bronx, New York?
What is considered a built-up roof covering?
Tar and gravel
How far apart on center were the heavy timber trusses spaced of the fire building in Yonkers, New York on March 13, 1984?
What part of the sloping roof is most susceptible to rotting?
What is NOT a common type of wood construction used for sloping roofs?
How does the tile roof collapse?
In one large section without any warning signs
What is considered a prepared roof covering?
What is a primary structural member in wood floor construction?
How far apart may the plank-and-beam roof have a lattice spaced?
Which of the following sloping rooftops is the safest to walk on?
D.) Timber truss
How many hose streams should be tried before calling for an exterior attack on the timber truss roof fire building?
When does the firefighter perform size-up?
During the entire operation
Where will the main fire be located in a timber truss building?
How far will the water stream be capable of reaching when battling a timber truss roof fire where no ceiling is present?
Where can vent openings be made in the bowstring truss roof to provide horizontal cross-ventilation?
Front and rear sloping portions of the roof
How will timber trusses fail when dry-wall plaster board is applied as a fire-retarder?
One section at a time
How many bearing walls does a bowstring truss roof have?
What is the minimum size of timber construction?
2 by 4 inches
What size section of the truss roof will collapse if there are fire stopping materials, the building is 100 by 100 feet with truss sections 20 feet on center and one section fails?
Where should firefighters be positioned when attempting the initial hose line attack?
Behind a truss section next to the one involved in fire
What part of the bowstring truss roof is supported by the side walls?
Ends of truss sections
Where should the second line be placed when an interior attack proves successful?
Highest point of the truss roof
Where will the typical fire inside a structure with a bowstring truss roof originate?
Contents at floor level
What type of strategy should be taken when a truss roof is identified early in the operation?
What type of stress does the split-ring metal connector relieve?
What is the most common design of the timber truss roof?
Where do firefighting procedures state that the roof vent should be made?
Directly over the fire
What does the safety man do to ensure the cutting firefighter that the path is clear?
Keeps a hand on his back
What is the smaller wood framework that is built up above the main roof supports?
What spacing is used for an open-web steel bar joist flat roof?
3 to 4 feet on center
What is considered the most stable flat roof?
Solid wood beam
What spacing is used for a parallel chord wood truss flat roof?
24 inches on center
How long after in a fully developed fire can it be expected that the parallel chord wood truss roof will fail?
What type of information does the firefighter need to have to determine a roof's stability?
Knowledge of the roof's construction
What method of support is a corbel shelf?
What size framework does the raised roof contain?
2 by 4 inch
What is placed over a hole in the roof sometimes that makes it an extreme hazard for the firefighter?
Which type of connections is the basis for having firefighters walk near the parapet wall on a fire weakened roof?
What spacing is used for the solid beam flat roof?
16 inches on center
What is a scuttle cover equated to?
What is a beam which is designed to release under fire conditions?
What connects the truss of the parallel chord wood truss roof?
What is the best thing for a disoriented firefighter to do if there is no immediate danger while on the roof?
Remain in place until oriented
Where is the shaft that separates the attached buildings when a party wall is present?
What should be considered in a fire building with an unprotected lightweight steel roof when venting is required to advance the hoseline?
What is most often the reason that a roof failure is not anticipated during the size-up?
Change in the roof joist system
What is the maximum distance that open-web steel bar joists can be spaced?
What degree angles is the steel bar of a lightweight steel open-web bar joist bent?
When did an increase in the use of lightweight structural steel begin?
What is the principal danger to a firefighter in a burning non-combustible structure that contains unprotected steel?
Potential for collapse
What load capacity may a roof designed to only support a snow roof have?
20 pounds per square foot
At what angle should the pull cut be made when venting a lightweight steel roof?
How much can the length of a steel member be increased when it is heated to 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit?
1 inch in 10 feet
What is considered to be a safe spacing of wood joists for roof ventilation operations?
16 to 24 inches on center
At what temperature (degrees Fahrenheit) does steel lose 40% of its load-carrying capacity?
Which of the following roof deck materials is heavier and may reduce a firefighter's safe operating time on top of or below an unprotected steel roof?
Precast concrete plank
What is the final factor which can affect steel failure?
What is the fire resistive rating that can be achieved for the lightweight steel bar joist when it is encased in an insulating material?
How long after exposure to fire may the unprotected steel bar joist collapse?
5 to 10 minutes
What type of non-bearing enclosure walls do buildings of non-combustible construction have?
Masonry or steel
What is the average response time of the average urban fire company?
How many factors determine the speed with which unprotected steel will fail during a fire?
How much of the total temperature rise attained after eight hours is reached at ten minutes?
What direction in relation to the solid beam will fire be slowed when fire is in the concealed space?
Which of the following is used to connect heavy timber truss chords?
Steel bolts and plates
When was the first known firefighter death from being trapped by the collapse of a lightweight wood truss?
How far into the wood does the gusset plate penetrate?
What is the main concern of the fire service about the lightweight wood truss roof?
Use of gusset plates
What is the wood dimensions of heavy timber generally?
4 inches wide and 6 inches deep
What is the smallest size of the wooden members that can be used in lightweight wood truss roofs?
2 inches wide and 4 inches deep
What is the most important first step when rescuing firefighters trapped beneath a collapsed ceiling?
Sweep collapse area above the ceiling with a hose line
Where should rescue attempts be made if firefighters are trapped at the rear of the store?
What part of a suspended ceiling pins and traps a firefighter when it collapses?
What is the first part of the ceiling that must be cut when a suspended ceiling collapses?
How much can the ceiling grid framework weigh in the suspended ceiling?
Thousands of pounds
How much per square foot does the metal grid system with permanently affixed wire lath ceiling weigh?
What is most often the cause of the affixed ceiling collapse?
Absorption of water
What is the cause of death when a ceiling collapses on the firefighter?
Fire or smoke
How much per square foot does a lightweight metal grid panel ceiling weigh?
What causes the immediate large increase in fire when the wood grid suspended ceiling collapses?
Influx of fresh air
What effect is achieved when a second ceiling is constructed?
Which of the following is the most common type of material used in a ceiling that is directly affixed?
Where is the sometimes a rapid increase in fire immediately after a wood grid suspended ceiling collapses?
Space directly over the fallen ceiling
How many stories of collapsing stone intermediate landings have firefighters crashed through?
4 and 5
When do intermediate landings made of stone on steel-framed U-return stairs most often collapse?
s the firefighter descends the stair
What is the most frequent cause of collapse of a U-return steel stair?
Failure of a stone stair tread
What size angle-iron edge is used with the steel frame on a steel U-return stair?
What location do some fire departments require the firs those line to be laid due to its safety factor?
What is the structural support of the stair tread or landing of the steel U-return stairway?
Two-inch thickness of marble
Where should the firefighter stay when climbing a sagging, fire-weakened wooden stair?
Near the wall
What deciding factor determines if a stair will collapse?
Where have the most serious injuries occurred to firefighters in relation to stairways?
Intermediate landing collapse
What does the U-return stair increase?
Floor space for residential use
What are the treads and landings constructed from on U-return stairs that sustain most intermediate landing collapse?
Stone unsupported by a steel pan
Where is an L-shaped stair most often found?
At what degree angle does a straight-run stair provide uninterrupted passage between two floors?
45 or 60
What are soffits usually made of?
Wire lath and plaster
What are straight run stairs most often constructed from?
Which type of straight-run stairs does a person walk up one flight of stairs to the floor above and then reverses direction?
Which type of stairs in masonry enclosures as a general rule will not fail if the floor of the building does?
What is the type of stair preferred in modern building construction?
Which part of a steel-framed U-return stairway tends to collapse more readily?
How many firefighters has it been estimated have been injured in the past decade by collapsing stairways, landings and treads?
More than 2,000
How many sections will a wooden, stacked, straight-run stairway collapse in if the carriage beam supports are weakened by fire?
Where in relation to the fire should the victim be brought back inside from the fire escape?
How many classifications can fire escapes be placed into?
How many thin bars may be available for a handrail on the standard fire escape?
What should be used to remove victims when they are on the lowest level of the counterbalance stairway?
Department ground ladder
Where should the firefighter place his feet on the step of the fire escape to reduce deflection?
What is the cause of most firefighter injuries on fire escapes?
How does the captain want to force entry into the fourth floor fire apartment to minimize damage?
Through the window
What often times causes a party balcony to collapse?
How many people can descend down the exterior screened stairway together?
Two side by side
What is accessible via a party balcony?
What is the best location to place the ladder when using it to remove victims from a party balcony?
Leaned against the building next to the fire escape
Which is the safest type of fire escape?
Exterior screened stairway
What angle can the drop down ladder of the standard fire escape be placed at?
60 to 75 degrees
What is a counterbalance stairway balanced on?
Which type of construction is considered superior from a fire protection standpoint?
Which walls on more modern residential construction are the bearing walls?
Front and rear
Which type of collapse is often times NOT preceded with a warning other than a serious fire burning for a long time on the lower floor?
What are the large timbers placed at each corner of the braced-frame building called?
Which major type of wood-frame construction is the most dangerous for firefighters?
What is the most widely used method of wood-frame construction today?
Where will hose lines need to be placed to protect from radiant heat exposure when fighting a fire at a wood-frame building?
How does a three-story braced frame structure frequently fall?
How many different ways are there in which a wood-frame building can collapse?
What are the corner posts and girders connected with on the braced-frame wooden constructed building?
What is often the signal that the 90-degree angle wall collapse is going to happen?
Corners of the wall splitting apart from the remaining walls
Which type of construction became popular as the population moved westward?
How often are the thin strips of sheet metal applied to the exterior of the wooden wall when applying a brick veneer?
Every 2 square feet
How many walls will generally fall during a fire in a structure with masonry walls?
How is the platform method of construction carried out?
One level is built at a time
Which type of building collapse is considered the most dangerous?
What type of load is exerted on the wall studs to which the fire escape is anchored?
How many walls maximum can be involved in an inward/outward collapse?
What direction does the concrete fly when an explosive spalling occurs?
How many floors below the most recently constructed floor is the standpipe riser supposed to be during the construction process?
1 or 2
Where is the enclosure wall built from?
Within what time frame do construction engineers say the entire concrete floor can collapse on firefighters if the wood form work below has been destroyed by fire?
What do the most serious fires at construction sites involve?
What size timbers are used as columns, girders and beams in formwork?
What is done to protect smaller adjacent buildings from falling objects during a fire in a building under construction?
Cover the roof with two-by-eight-inch heavy wood timbers
What position are the control valves on the standpipe system often installed in?
At what building height do some states have a law that requires a stem and yoke control valve be installed on the outside of the building?
150 feet or 15 stories
Above what floor must the vertical standpipe system be installed in buildings under construction in many states?
Where are the controls located for the materials and equipment elevator on the construction site?
How many steel cables support the materials and equipment elevator at the construction site?
1 or 2
How long after the concrete has been poured is the formwork removed to being making another floor during a "fast-track" construction project?
Who should the firefighter consult with before removing supporting members of formwork during overhaul operations?
After how many days does concrete reach its maximum strength?
Which type of concrete building is built on the site,floor by floor?
Which type of concrete structures experience the most serious and greatest number of fire nationwide?
What will be the major cause of fire extension of a formwork fire in a cast-in-place building under construction?
What size timbers are used to construct scaffolding?
How thick can the layer of concrete be that falls as a result of spalling?
3 or 4 inches
What is needed on the standpipe riser to allow for adequate pressure in the system?
Which control valve on the standpipe is often overlooked when they must be closed during operations?
What type of strength is afforded to the building by the concrete?
Where should master streams NOT be located when there is a great potential for wall collapse beyond the collapse zone?
In front of the building
How much water does the average master stream deliver into a burning building?
What sound is heard when the master stream strikes the side wall of a wood building?
What sound is heard when a master stream enters a window?
Who is often the first to recognize water build-up on a floor or roof?
Those operating elevated streams
Where is the master stream being operated from an aerial platform most effective?
Placed close to the window
How far from an unstable wall should the tip of the aerial ladder be kept away?
Equal to the height of the wall above
What sound is heard when the master stream strikes a brick wall hidden in smoke?
How many parapet walls make the roof more prone to water build-up?
What should a master stream NOT be directed at?
How many feet per second does the water move out of the nozzle of a master stream?
Where is the destructive pressure of a master stream greatest?
Where the water leaves the nozzle
What is the most important change in the design and use of the master stream?
It is no longer restricted to the ground level
How many pounds of water per minute can be discharged from the average master stream?
Where should the master stream be positioned when fighting fire in the concealed spaces above suspended ceilings to be most effective?
Below the ceiling
What is the minimum size solid-stream nozzle which is considered to be a master stream?
1 1/2 inches
What is a main disadvantage of using master streams?
Large volumes of water used
What should be done if it is determined that the structure is not safe after master stream operations have concluded?
Establish a watch line
What does the master stream strike when it is directed from window to window on a burning masonry building?
Brick wall between openings
What should be cut through when looking for victims in a supported lean-to collapse?
During which stage of rescue is there little chance of survival?
General debris removal
Who should orders be given to when conducting a collapse rescue effort?
What is the first duty of the fire officer in command when a collapse occurs?
Determine who is missing
What is the first step of the standard collapse rescue plan?
Survey the site of collapse
What is one of the most important objectives of a collapse rescue operation?
Control and organization
Where may victims be found in a tent collapse?
Near the partition wall
Where may victims be found in an unsupported lean-to void?
Beneath the floor near the bearing wall
Where should the observer be placed when shoring is used at an unstable structure?
At the point of the shoring
Where will victims from the floor above be found with a V-shape collapse?
In the center of the V
What increases the chances of a secondary collapse?
Firefighters work and move about the fallen building
What creates void spaces in a pancake collapse?
Large pieces of furniture
What is the last step in the standard collapse rescue plan?
Start general debris removal to clear the entire collapse rubble
What are the buildings called by FDNY which are located in "Hell's hundred acres"?
Which safety precaution is directed during a collapse or explosion, where firefighters are searching the rubble of a weakened structure for victims?
Assignment of a monitor
Who is the roped off area meant to keep out?
Civilians, firefighters and officers
What makes an emergency evacuation a confusing time?
It is a rare occurrence
What collapsing may affect the stability of the dividing wall?
What is the horizontal collapse danger zone equal to?
The length of the wall
How high above the ground should the rope be placed when roping off a danger area?
Waist or chest high
What would most likely be done if there is a partially collapsed cornice when firefighters arrive and there is a need for search and rescue operations first?
Place a spotlight on it
How much floor joist end should be supported by the girder as a minimum?
Where do secondary steel floor support beams of fire-resistive steel skeleton buildings separate during fire?
From the girder at the connection
Which collapses should be noted on the fire fact sheet completed during the post-fire analysis?
All of them should be noted
What is used to indicate the nozzle of the hose line on the fire diagram?
Which abbreviation is used to indicate a non-combustible building construction on the fire diagram?
What is the most important type of strategy that the fireground commander should be able to put into use?
How many separate channels would be called for in the fire communication plan?
Where should exposure 1 be located on the fire diagram?
Bottom of the page
What is indicated in the lower left hand corner of the fire diagram?
Construction type, height in stories, width and length
What shape is used to indicate the pumper on the fire diagram?
How much space was opened up when truss 5 collapsed at the Brooklyn supermarket fire in 1978?
4,000 square feet
Which part of the post-fire analysis should be completed when the fire scene will be cleaned up the next day?
When should the post-fire analysis take place?
As soon as the fire has been extinguished
What letter is drawn next to the fatality symbol if the firefighter was found face down?
What allows for rapid fire spread between wood-frame buildings?
Combustible exterior walls with small horizontal separations between buildings
What is one of the most important size-up duties of first-in chiefs?
Determine location and severity of fire
How many different view points should each photograph be taken from?
How many bowstring timber trusses were in the Brooklyn supermarket which collapsed in 1978?
What will collapse first on the fully involved burning heavy timber constructed building?
Who should perform the post-fire analysis?
What is the first thing that should be photographed when dealing with a firefighter fatality?
Close-up of the spot
What is the most important strategy and tactical consideration at a fire?
Water supply and pressure
How many general types of construction are in use today?
Which entity has in the past conducted investigations into fires after the fact, but from a property protection point of view?
How many skilled individuals are needed to complete the photographic documentation step of the post-fire analysis?
What shape is used with shockwaves indicating the area of shockwaves from an explosion on the fire diagram?
What is the post-incident analysis?
Safety, strategy, tactics and safety investigation from the fireground commander's point of view
What percentage of the time can the point of origin be easily determined by a close examination of the fire area?
What symbol is used to indicate the fire's point of origin?
What should be the first thing that is photographed during the third step of the post-fire analysis?
What is used to indicate wind direction on the fire diagram?
Line with an arrowhead indicating wind direction
What is used to create the strategies used today?
Which is considered the most important part of the post-fire analysis?
What symbol is used to indicate an area where an explosion or collapse occurred?
Crossed diagonal lines
How many pictures should be usable for the photographic presentation part of the post-fire analysis?
What was the distance from the floor space to the underside of the truss roof in the Brooklyn supermarket fire of 1978?
What was the reason that the fire's exact location was not identifiable in the fire that killed 12 FDNY firefighters in 1966?
What is the second thing that needs to be determined when completing the fire fact sheet?
Cause of the fire
During which stages of fire do most burning building collapses occur within?
Second and third
What collapses instantaneously in wood-frame buildings?
Bearing wall and floor
What should be photographed after the cause of the explosion has been recorded on film?