BIO 395: Exam 2

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marekj1
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243139
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BIO 395: Exam 2
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2013-10-30 20:26:58
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Biology
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Chapters 7-11 and Issues 3,13,14,15, and 8
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  1. Environmental Refugees
    People forced to leave their homes when the environment can no longer support them
  2. Life Expectancy
    Average number of years a newborn can expect to live
  3. Infant and Childhood Mortality
    The annual number of infants under the age of 1 who die per 1,000 live births
  4. Why is the education of females considered the single most influential investment that can be made in the developing world?
    The more educated a person is, the fewer children they have, and later in life
  5. Demographic Transition
    • The movement of a nation from a high population growth to a low population growth, as it develops economically. 4 stages:
    • 1. Birth and death rates are both high
    • 2. Death rates fall, but birth rates remain high
    • 3. As economic development improves the standard of living, birth rates fall
    • 4. The growth rate reaches zero and nation's population stabilizes
  6. Demographic Trap
    Situation when death rate decreases because of improved sanitation and medicine, but living standards do not improve which reinforce a high fertility rate
  7. Pronatalist Population Policy
    • Where fertility rates are near or below replacement levels (developed world)
    • Encourage increased fertility, higher birth rate, and a larger family size
  8. Antinatalist Population Policy
    • Where are are high growth rates (developing world)
    • Encourages lower fertility, lower birth rate, and smaller family size
  9. According to the fossil record, how long has our species, Homo sapiens, been around? Hominids?
    • Homo sapiens - 40,000-50,000 years
    • Hominids - 3-4 million years ago
  10. How did agriculture change life for humans and lead to an increase in our population growth? About how long ago did humans learn to cultivate our own food (agriculture)?
    • The size of the groups grew and having numerous children did not present the same practical problems that existed for nomadic women.
    • About 10,000 years ago
  11. What are some of the reasons why moving into cities have increased our impact on the environment?
    • Food wastes were no longer returned to the soil and the soil became less productive
    • Wastes were often dumped into rivers and streams, or just thrown on the ground
  12. Why did the human population grow rapidly during the early years of the Industrial Revolution?
    Children were seen as valuable sources of cheap labor by both parents and employers
  13. 3 factors why the population of the industrialized world dropped significantly around 1900.
    • 1. The Industrial Revolution led to a rise in the standard of living
    • 2. Safe and inexpensive means of birth control
    • 3. Increase in the cost of child rearing meant having more children yielded fewer material benefits
  14. What factors go into determining the Ecological Footprint?
    • 1. Produce all the resources we consume - for food, fuel, clothing, transportation, etc.
    • 2. Absorb the waste we generate
  15. Macronutrients
    • Needed by the body in large amounts
    • - Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  16. Micronutrients
    • Substances the body needs in small, even trace amounts
    • - Vitamins and minerals
  17. Essential Amino Acids
    9/20 amino acids cannot be synthesized by our bodies and have to come from our diet
  18. Food Security
    The ability of a nation to provide enough food to keep its people alive and healthy
  19. Carryover Stocks
    • The total amount of grain in storage when the new harvest begins
    • Minimum of 70 day carryover stocks needed to ensure food security
  20. Aquaculture
    The controlled production of fish, shrimp, shellfish and seaweeds in ocean pens and inland ponds and tanks
  21. Green Revolution
    Significantly increased the amount of food calories produced per acre of agriculture
  22. Undernutrition
    Consumption of too few calories and protein over a prolonged period
  23. Malnutrition
    Consumption of too little of specific nutrients essential for good health
  24. How many calories does the average person need each day? Men (19-51+)? Women (19-51+)?
    • Avg. Person - 2,400 calories
    • Men - 2,300-2,900 calories
    • Women - 1,900-2,200 calories
  25. How does our body use each of the following: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins?
    • Carbs - Main source of energy
    • Fats - 2nd source of energy, cell membranes, and protect internal organs and insulation
    • Proteins - Muscles, organs, enzymes, and antibodies
  26. What are the top 4 plants that we depend on for our diet (in order)? The 3 major cereal grains?
    • 4 Plants - Wheat, rice, maize, and potatoes
    • 3 Cereal - Wheat, rice, and maize (corn)
  27. What % of the grains produced worldwide is used to feed livestock? In the US? How does this relate to world hunger? Which animal takes the least amount of grain to produce a pound of weight gain - beef, pork, chicken?
    • Worldwide - 40%
    • US - 11%
    • Hunger - The rest of the land is too wet, dry, cold, hot, poor in nutrients, etc. to produce grains to feed livestock.
    • Animal - Chicken or turkey
  28. Why would eating less meat reduce the shortage of food in the world?
    We would be able to devote less grain to animals and more to people
  29. What percentage of Earth's land area can be used easily to produce food?
    11%
  30. What is causing a reduction in the land devoted to grain production? (5 trends)
    • 1. Loss of irrigation water
    • 2. Expansion of deserts
    • 3. Conversion of arable land to non-farm use
    • 4. Shift to higher value fruits and vegetables
    • 5. Loss of rural labor
  31. What are the 4 most productive areas in the aquatic/marine ecosystems?
    • 1. Estuaries
    • 2. Offshore continental shelves
    • 3. Costal wetlands
    • 4. Coral reefs
  32. Why are some fishing techniques considered efficient but wasteful?
    Dragging - Capture desired fish, but also undesired and undersized fish
  33. What were the 4 reasons given to explain why there is hunger in the world of plenty?
    • 1. Poverty
    • 2. Environmental Degradation
    • 3. Civil War and Unrest
    • 4. Natural Disasters
  34. How can we promote food security? (6 suggestions)
    • 1. Modify the diet of people in the MCDs
    • 2. Improve management of ocean fisheries
    • 3. Add new plants to the human diet
    • 4. Preserve the genetic diversity of food crops and livestock
    • 5. Increase yields through aquaculture
    • 6. Increase yields through biotechnology
  35. Kinetic Energy
    Energy in motion or movement
  36. Potential Energy
    Stored energy
  37. Hydraulic Fracturing - "Fracking"
    A mixture of water, chemicals, and particulate matter (usually sand) is pumped into a well at high pressure to create fractures in the shale, allow the gas to escape
  38. What are the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics? Why are processes that convert energy from one form to another always less than 100%?
    • 1st Law - Energy can neither be created or destroyed, but ti can be changed or converted in form
    • 2nd Law - Conversion of energy from one form to another always involves a change or degradation from a higher quality to a lower quality form
    • Heat is always given off every time energy is converted from 1 form to another
  39. 5 Types of Fossil Fuels and how they are used.
    • Coal - Generate electricity
    • Petroleum - Gas, motor oil, jet fuel, plastics, medicines, etc.
    • Natural Gas - Heating, stoves, hot water heaters, dryers
    • Oil Shale - Low-grade power generation and heating
    • Tar Sands - Refined into oil
  40. What are the 3 factors that are needed to convert peat to coal?
    Heat, pressure, and time
  41. Why is anthracite coal preferred over bituminous coal? Which is the most abundant?
    • Anthracite - "Hard coal," Highest carbon content and lowest amount of water, most efficient, cleanest, preferred for heating homes and buildings
    • Bituminous - "Soft coal," heating values are lower, preferred for generating electricity
    • Abundant - Bituminous
  42. What is the primary use for coal both in the US and globally?
    Generate electricity
  43. What are some of the uses for petroleum besides fuels?
    Plastics, medicines, ink, lotions, make-up, insect repellent, dishwashing liquid, etc.
  44. What are some of the concerns about drilling for natural gas using hydraulic fracturing?
    • Uses high volumes of water
    • Possible contaminations of ground water
  45. Why are tar sands and oil shale not considered efficient sources of energy?
    • 1 barrel of crude oil needed to produce 1 barrel of shale oil - 1:1
    • 1 barrel of crude oil needed to produce 3 barrels of heavy oil from tar sands - 1:3
    • Very expensive
    • Lots of water
  46. Why is the use of coal considered to have the most serious environmental impacts? Which fossil fuel is considered the cleanest? Why? What are the concerns regarding petroleum?
    • Combustion of coal - Releases carbon dioxide, releases sulfur compounds (acid rain), and releases heavy metals (mercury, lead)
    • Natural Gas - When burned, coal releases 40% more CO2 and oil releases 30% more CO2, contains less nitrogen and sulfur oxides
    • Petroleum - Releases CO2, surfur and nitrogen oxides, and releases CO
  47. Why is there concern regarding our dependence on imported oil? In 2005, about how many barrels of oil did the US use daily? What % of that came from foreign sources? What is the global daily consumption of petroleum?
    • Concern - Effects and threats to our economy and security
    • 2005 - 20 million barrels
    • Foreign - 54%
    • Oil Consumption - 80 million barrels/day
  48. What is the ISEW and what does it measure? What is the correlation between happiness and the GDP in developed countries?
    • Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare
    • Measures the success and wealth of a country on not just its annual GDP, but also the quality of life that citizens enjoy
    • As GDP increases, happiness increases as well
  49. What is the UN's forecast for the world's population of humans in 2030?
    About 8 million people
  50. By-Catch
    Unintentionally catching a species while trying to fish for another
  51. Pirate Fishing
    • Illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing
    • Accounts for around 20% of the world's catch and as much as 50% in some fisheries
  52. Explain Area-based fisheries, closed areas, and mixed zoning
    • Area Based - Aims to rebuild fish stocks, have control over a smaller, more local, and responsive bodies of water
    • Closed - Close all or part of the threatened fish habitat to fishing, resulted in increases in fish populations
    • Mixed Zoning - Areas that are open and some are closed, fishers aren't allowed to use mobile gear
  53. Differences between commercial fishing and aquaculture.
    • Commercial Fishing - Supplies food for consumers and food-based businesses, fisheries and markets make money, and fulfill human want and need
    • Aquaculture - Breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments
  54. What % of our oil is imported? Which countries are our 2 largest suppliers?
    • Imported - 40%
    • Suppliers - Canada and Saudia Arabia
  55. Of the estimated US reserved of oil, are more found onshore or offshore?
    Offshore
  56. What are the 3 types of muds (drilling fluids) used in offshore drilling? How are they disposed?
    • Oil Based - Diesel or mineral oil
    • Water Based
    • Synthetic Based
    • Disposed either in onshore oil field waste sites or is injected into disposal wells at sea
  57. What percentage of global freshwater usage is attributed to agriculture?
    72%
  58. What are 3 benefits of organic farming? What are 4 environmental benefits?
    • 3 Benefits - Environmental benefits, human rights, and feeding the world
    • 4 Environmental - Increase soil productivity, decrease chemicals, decrease fossil fuels burned, and increase biodiversity
  59. Describe the 6 ecosystem services.
    • Protection
    • Air Purification
    • Pollination (necessary for food)
    • Climate Regulation
    • Waste Regulation
    • Aesthetic
  60. What is the annual estimated monetary value of ecosystem services worldwide?
    $33 Trillion
  61. Perpetual Energy
    Energy from sources that are essentially inexhaustible
  62. 5 types of perpetual alternative sources of energy? Advantages and disadvantages of each? Give examples of each. What 4 of these based directly or indirectly on solar energy
    • Solar Energy - Adv (No boilers, turbines, non-polluting), Dis (Intermittent in places, large amt of land for solar panels), Passive/Active Solar System, PV cells
    • Wind Power - Adv (clean), Dis (unreliable spd of 13mph, bird kills), Wind turbines
    • Hydropower - Adv (Clean, dams are multipurpose - flood control, electricity), Dis (Prevents free-flowing rivers, dams collect silt, flooding land to create reservoirs), Dams and Hydroelectric Plants
    • Geothermal Energy - Adv (Favorable than fossil fuel or nuclear energy, moderate costs), Dis (Nonrenewable on human scale, few easily accessible deposits), The Earth
    • Ocean Power - Adv. (non-polluting, free), Dis (Large turbines reduce current flow, death of fish), Wave power stations, current turbines, tidal turbines)
    • Solar Energy - Solar Energy, Wind Power, Hydropower, and Ocean Power

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