Quiz #3

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ZoeJane
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243145
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Quiz #3
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2013-10-27 13:00:11
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Control of microorganisms in the environment, Introduction to metabolism
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  1. use of chemical agents to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms within the host tissue
    chemotherapy
  2. reducing the microbial population to levels considered safe by public health standards is called
    sanitation
  3. chemicals used to kill or inhibit microorganisms on inanimate objects
    disinfection
  4. chemicals that kill or inhibit microorganisms on living tissues
    antisepsis
  5. removing all living cells, viable spores, viruses, virusoids and prions is
    sterilization
  6. kill pathogens
    cidal
  7. inhibit growth of pathogens
    static
  8. pattern of microbial population death
    exponential (logarithmic)
  9. 6 conditions that influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
    population size, population composition, concentration, contact time, temperature, local environment
  10. which cells are easier to kill? young or old?
    young
  11. An increase in temperature usually..
    enhances the effectiveness of antimicrobial agent
  12. These communities of various organisms in combo with glycocalyx secretion inhibit the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
    BIOFILMS
  13. 2 categories of physical control methods
    heat and radiation
  14. appliance uses saturated steam under pressure to achieve sterilization
    autoclave
  15. moist heat
    is more effective than dry heat
  16. vegetative cells can live for
    10 minutes in boiling water
  17. boiling water does not kill
    SPORES
  18. Tyndallization
    uses 3 cycles of steam heat to assure proper destruction of spores
  19. method of killing selective microorganisms using a brief heating that doesn't reach boiling
    pasteurization
  20. HEPA
    high efficiency particulate air filters
  21. 3 circumstances which may call for use of filtration as means of sterilization
    heat sensitive materials, liquids, gases
  22. type of DNA damage caused by UV radiation
    thymine dimers
  23. two types of ionizing radiation
    gamma and electron beams
  24. 6 chemical control agents
    phenolics, alcohols, halogenated compound, aldeheydes, quaternary ammonium, gases
  25. Lysol and triclosan can be categorized as
    phenolics
  26. how does triclosan work?
    blocks fatty acid synthesis
  27. where might u find triclosan?
    hand sanitizers and toothpaste
  28. triclosan has three
    chlorines
  29. how do phenolics work
    denature proteins and disrupt cell membranes
  30. alcohols dissolve
    membrane lipids
  31. alcohol does not kill
    spores (not effective against c. dif)
  32. Halogens
    fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
  33. halogens are
    oxidizing agents
  34. how do heavy metals work to inhibit microorganisms?
    combine with proteins to inactive them
  35. 5 examples of heavy metals
    mercury, silver, arsenic, zinc and copper
  36. heavy metal used in past to disinfect infant's eyes
    silver nitrate
  37. 2 types of aldehydes used in preservation or for sterilization
    formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde
  38. 2 types of sterilizing gases
    ethylene oxide and VHP (vaporized hydrogen peroxide)
  39. The EPA regulates
    disinfectants
  40. The FDA regulates
    agents used on living individuals
  41. 2 tests used to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
    Phenol coefficient test and use-dilution test
  42. use-dilution test explained
    steel carriers dipped in broths of bacteria then dried & exposed to a disinfectant, then introduced into culture medium to see if anything grows
  43. break down of larger molecules into smaller molecules with release of energy
    catabolism
  44. synthesis of complex molecules with the input of energy
    anabolism
  45. providing electrons is known as
    reducing power
  46. 3 different types of work
    chemical, transport, mechanical
  47. First law of Thermodynamics
    energy can neither be created or destroyed
  48. Second Law of thermodynamics
    entropy/chaos
  49. Proteins that catalyze metabolic reactions are called
    Enzymes
  50. Most biological oxidations are
    dehydrogenations
  51. More reduced means
    more hydrogen (electrons)
  52. reduced form of NAD+
    NADH
  53. Final electron in aerobic respiration
    oxygen (reduced to water)
  54. where is the ETC (electron transport carrier) located in eukaryotes?
    inner mitochondrial membrane
  55. in prokaryotes the ETC is located in the
    plasma membrane
  56. which electron carriers have a porphyrin ring?
    Cytochromes
  57. what is a catalyst?
    substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently altered itself
  58. what sits in the active site of an enzyme?
    substrate
  59. what do we call the things that leave the active site?
    products
  60. what do you call the protein part of the enzyme?
    apoenzyme
  61. what term refers to the "whole" enzyme?
    holoenzyme
  62. the non-protein part of the enzyme is a
    cofactor
  63. Many vitamins are
    conezymes
  64. Many minerals are
    cofactors
  65. Enzymes accelerate reactions by lowering the
    activation energy
  66. Substrate concentration increases the reaction rate up until the point of
    saturation
  67. 2 things that can damage enzymes
    drastic pH changes and an increase in temperature
  68. Non-competitive inhibitors bind to the
    regulatory (allosteric) site
  69. Competitive inhibitors bind to the
    catalytic site
  70. 2 Pre-translational means of regulation
    metabolic channeling and regulation of the synthesis of a particular enzyme

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