Card Set Information
Control of microorganisms in the environment, Introduction to metabolism
use of chemical agents to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms within the host tissue
reducing the microbial population to levels considered safe by public health standards is called
chemicals used to kill or inhibit microorganisms on inanimate objects
chemicals that kill or inhibit microorganisms on living tissues
removing all living cells, viable spores, viruses, virusoids and prions is
inhibit growth of pathogens
pattern of microbial population death
6 conditions that influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
population size, population composition, concentration, contact time, temperature, local environment
which cells are easier to kill? young or old?
An increase in temperature usually..
enhances the effectiveness of antimicrobial agent
These communities of various organisms in combo with glycocalyx secretion inhibit the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
2 categories of physical control methods
heat and radiation
appliance uses saturated steam under pressure to achieve sterilization
is more effective than dry heat
vegetative cells can live for
10 minutes in boiling water
boiling water does not kill
uses 3 cycles of steam heat to assure proper destruction of spores
method of killing selective microorganisms using a brief heating that doesn't reach boiling
high efficiency particulate air filters
3 circumstances which may call for use of filtration as means of sterilization
heat sensitive materials, liquids, gases
type of DNA damage caused by UV radiation
two types of ionizing radiation
gamma and electron beams
6 chemical control agents
phenolics, alcohols, halogenated compound, aldeheydes, quaternary ammonium, gases
Lysol and triclosan can be categorized as
how does triclosan work?
blocks fatty acid synthesis
where might u find triclosan?
hand sanitizers and toothpaste
triclosan has three
how do phenolics work
denature proteins and disrupt cell membranes
alcohol does not kill
spores (not effective against c. dif)
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
how do heavy metals work to inhibit microorganisms?
combine with proteins to inactive them
5 examples of heavy metals
mercury, silver, arsenic, zinc and copper
heavy metal used in past to disinfect infant's eyes
2 types of aldehydes used in preservation or for sterilization
formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde
2 types of sterilizing gases
ethylene oxide and VHP (vaporized hydrogen peroxide)
The EPA regulates
The FDA regulates
agents used on living individuals
2 tests used to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents
Phenol coefficient test and use-dilution test
use-dilution test explained
steel carriers dipped in broths of bacteria then dried & exposed to a disinfectant, then introduced into culture medium to see if anything grows
break down of larger molecules into smaller molecules with release of energy
synthesis of complex molecules with the input of energy
providing electrons is known as
3 different types of work
chemical, transport, mechanical
First law of Thermodynamics
energy can neither be created or destroyed
Second Law of thermodynamics
Proteins that catalyze metabolic reactions are called
Most biological oxidations are
More reduced means
more hydrogen (electrons)
reduced form of NAD+
Final electron in aerobic respiration
oxygen (reduced to water)
where is the ETC (electron transport carrier) located in eukaryotes?
inner mitochondrial membrane
in prokaryotes the ETC is located in the
which electron carriers have a porphyrin ring?
what is a catalyst?
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently altered itself
what sits in the active site of an enzyme?
what do we call the things that leave the active site?
what do you call the protein part of the enzyme?
what term refers to the "whole" enzyme?
the non-protein part of the enzyme is a
Many vitamins are
Many minerals are
Enzymes accelerate reactions by lowering the
Substrate concentration increases the reaction rate up until the point of
2 things that can damage enzymes
drastic pH changes and an increase in temperature
Non-competitive inhibitors bind to the
regulatory (allosteric) site
Competitive inhibitors bind to the
2 Pre-translational means of regulation
metabolic channeling and regulation of the synthesis of a particular enzyme