Anatomy ch. 15

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geoerguera
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243151
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Anatomy ch. 15
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2013-10-27 13:49:18
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anatomy brain cranial nerves
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exam 2, human anatomy chapter 15
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  1. What is the collective name for the 3 membranes that surround/protect the brain and spinal cord?
    meninges
  2. what is the name of the most superficial of the meninges, consisting of two layers of tough, fibrous connective tissue?
    Dura mater
  3. (This membrane is bound to the bone in the skull but free in the vertebral column.) What is the name of the space outside of this membrane (filled with fat in the vertebral foramen where anesthetics can be injected (or dripped)?
    Epidural space
  4. what is the name of the blood vessels formed where the layers of the dura mater separate?
    dural venous sinuses
  5. what is the general term for the four extensions of the dura mater that create flat partitions between different parts of the brain (include the flax cerebri and tentorium cerebelli)?
    Cranial dural septa
  6. what is the name of the middle layer of the meninges that is delicate and contains a web-like  meshwork of fibers on its deep side?
    arachnoid mater
  7. what is the name of the space below this membrane in which the CSF circulates?
    Subarachnoid space
  8. what is the name of the structures formed from this membrane that protrude into the blood vessels of the dura that allow CSF to return to the cardiovascular system?
    arachnoid granulations
  9. what is the name of the highly vascular deep layer of the meninges that is attached to the surface of the brain, following its contours (unlike the superficial and middle layers?
    Pia mater
  10. what does CSF stand for ?
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  11. what structures, composed of fenestrated capillaries and ependymal cells, create CSF?
    Choroid process
  12. In what fluid-filled cavities of the brain are these structures located (generic term)?
    Ventricles
  13. What is the largest part of the brain ?
    Cerebrum
  14. what do we call the two, separate halves of this region?
    Cerebral hemispheres
  15. what do we call the deep division between these two halves?
    Logitudinal fissure
  16. what is the bridge of white matter (axons in a commissural tract) that connects the two hemispheres superior to the lateral ventricles?
    corpus callosum
  17. we say that this portion of the brain is convoluted (wrinkled), allowing us ~2.5ft 2 of cerebral cortex. what do we call the raised areas and the depressions between them that create the wrinkled appearance?
    raised areas= Gyri (gyrus)

    shallow depressions= Sulci (sulcus)
  18. This region of the brain is gray on the outside and white on the inside. What are the names of the white and gray areas (and the gray areas within the white)?
    Gray- cerebral cortex

    white- cerebral medulla 

    gray within the white- cerebral (basal) nuclei
  19. This region is divided into 4 lobes (5 if you count the insula)
    what lobe lies anterior to the central sulcus and contains the primary motor cortex? its functions extend beyond motor control to higher intellectual functions such as personality, decision making and concentration.
    Frontal lobe
  20. wher is the primary motor cortex located in the frontal lobe?
    Pre-Central gyrus
  21. What lobe lies posterior to the central sulcus and contains the primary somatosensory cortex? its functions include perception of touch, pressure, vibration, temperature.
    parietal lobe
  22. where is the primary somatosensory cortex located in the parietal lobe?
    post central gyrus
  23. what lobe lies inferior to the lateral sulcus and contains the primary auditory and olfactory cortices? its functions include perception of smell and hearing ?
    Temporal lobe
  24. what lobe lies on the posterior aspect of the cerebrum and contains the visual cortex? The function of this lobe is perception of visual information?
    Occipital lobe
  25. what areas of the cerebrum do not receive sensory information directly (the appropriate sensory cortex does) or generate motor impulses (the appropriate motor coretex area does) but interepret sensory input (or motor output) in light of memories to comprehend sensory input or coordinate motor output?
    Association areas
  26. what functional group of components of the cerebrum and diencephalon 1) establishes emotional state and behavior drives, 2) links conscious and unconscious brain functions, and 3) facilitates memory storage and retrieval?
    Limbic system
  27. what is the technical term for the portion of the brain, deep to the cerebrum, that contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland?
    Diencephalon
  28. what gland is located on the posterior portion of the diencephalon and secretes melatonin (a hormone involved in day-night cycles and onset of puberty)?
    Pineal gland
  29. what structure, formed of most of the neural mass of the diecephalon, is filled with nuclei that relay sensory information to the appropriate region of the cerebral cortex for that particular stimulus?
    Thalamus
  30. What structure on the anterior and inferior aspect of the diencephalon is the control center for the ANS and the endocrine system as well as being involved in the regulation of things such as behavioral drives, body temperature, and circadian rhythms?
    hypothalamus
  31. what endocrine gland is located inferior to the hypothalamus (and actually stores 2 hormones secreted by the hypothalamus)?
    Pituitary gland
  32. What are the 3 components of the brain stem?
    • .Mescencephalon (midbrain)
    • .Pons 
    • .Medulla oblongata
  33. What region of the brain, found immediately inferior to the diencephalon, generates reflexive responses to visual and auditory information and contains nuclei involved with involuntary motor activities such as maintaining muscle tone?
    Mescencephalon (midbrain)
  34. What is the specific term for the 2 pairs of sensory nuclei responsible for generating auditory and visual reflexes?
    Corpora quadrigemina
  35. what large, anterior bulge of the brainstem hold centers that work with the medulla oblongata to control breathing as well as tracts connecting the cerebellum to the rest of the brain and nuclei for many cranial nerves?
    Pons
  36. What inferior portion of the brainstem (immediately superior to the spinal cord serves asa connection for many cranial nerves and hold autonomic nuclei associated with reflexes involving heart rate blood flow, and respiratory rate?
    medulla oblongata
  37. what region of the brain, the second larges, maintains equilibrium and posture as well as programming and fine-tuning motor commands (using stored memories of movement patterns)?
    Cerebellum

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