anatomy ch. 16

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anatomy ch. 16
2013-10-27 14:21:46
anatomy autonomic nervous system

Exam 2 Human Anatomy chapter 16
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  1. What does ANS stand for?
    Autonomic nervous system
  2. what is the etymology of autonomic?
    autos: auto 

    nomos: law
  3. By definition the ANS is purely _________ (it only transmits signals of this type)?
  4. How does transmission of a signal from the CNS to an effector differ between the somatic and autonomic divisions of the nervous system (just the most basic difference)?
    It travels through 2 neurons in the ANS, and only 1 in the somatic division.
  5. what do we call the first neuron in an ANS Pathway?
    Pre-ganglionic neuron
  6. Describe the axons of a Pre-ganglionic neuron.
  7. what do we call the second neuron in an ANS pathway?
    Ganglionic neuron
  8. what do we call the axons of a ganglionic neuron? describe them .
    -post-ganglionic axons 

  9. what are the two major divisions of the ANS?
    sympathetic and parasympathetic
  10. What is the functional (laymen's) name for the sympathetic divison?
    Fight or flight
  11. what is the anatomically based name for the sympathetic division?
  12. where are the cell bodies of the pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons located?
    lateral horns (of spinal cord) from T1- L2
  13. What neurotransmitter is generally released by smpathetic post-glanglionic axons?
    NE- Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
  14. what are the two types of ganglia in the sympathetic division and where are they located?
    • .Sympathetic trunk ganglia
    • -parallel to vertebral column 

    • .collateral ganglia 
    • - anterior to abdominal aorta
  15. What carries sympathetic signals from the spinal nerve to the sympathetic trunk?
    White ramus communicans
  16. what carries sympathetic signals, destined for glands or peripheral blood vessels in the body wall which return to a spinal nerve for distribution?
    Gray ramus communicans
  17. How do sympathetic impulses destined for areas outside region of sympathetic impulse origination (T1-L2) get innervated?
    • .Originate from T1-L2
    • .Enter the sympathetic trunk
    • .travel through additional ganglia
  18. What do we call the nerves that carry fibers that have passed through the sympathetic trunk without synapsing to the collateral ganglia where they will synapse prior to innervating abdominopelvic viscera?
    Splanchnic nerves
  19. what are the names of the 3 collateral ganglia (we'll hit arteries that share these names later)?
    • .Celiac
    • .superior mesenteric 
    • .inferior mesenteric
  20. What endocrine organ is composed of short post-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division and what neurotransmitters (that act as hormones) are released?
    adrenal medulla
  21. what are some of the effects of sympathetic stimulation?
    • .increased alertness
    • .increased cardiac and respiratory activity 
    • .increased muscle tone 
    • .energy mobilization 
    • .dilate pupils 
    • .constrict peripheral and visceral vessels 
    • .stimulate sweat and arrector pili muscles 
    • .ejaculation
  22. what is the functional (laymen's) name for the parasympathetic division?
    Rest and digest
  23. What is the anatomically based name for the parasympathetic division?
    Craniosacral division
  24. Where are the cell bodies of the pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons located?
    • .brainstem
    • .S2-S4
  25. What cranial nerves transmit parasympathetic impulses?
    • .Oculomotor
    • .facial
    • .glassopharyngeal 
    • .vagus
  26. What neurotransmitter is generally released by parasympathetic post-ganglionic axons?
    Ach-acetyl choline
  27. Where are the ganglia located in the parasympathetic division?
    near or in the wall of the target organ.
  28. What are some of the effects of parasympathetic stimulation?
    • .constrict pupils 
    • .secretion from digestive glands
    • .increase Gl motility
    • .constrict respiratory passages 
    • .reduction of heart rate 
    • .arousal
  29. The ANS receives input from the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord.

    What region fo the brain is the integration and command center for autonomic functions acting as a higher center over other autonomic centers and incorporating conscious thought and emotion from the cerebral cortex in its initiation autonomic impulses?
  30. what region of the brain contains autonomic reflex centers that control things such as cardiovascular and respiratory activity, digestive  secretion, peristalsis, and urinary function?
    Medulla oblongata
  31. the digestive system is capable of a degree of autonomic self control, independent of the CNS. What is the name of this somewhat independent aspect of the nervous system?
    enteric nervous system