Lecture Test 4 Chapter 19-20

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Lecture Test 4 Chapter 19-20
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2013-10-29 20:39:45
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Lecture Test Chapter 19 20
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Lecture Test 4 Chapter 19-20
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  1. Three types of Muscular Tissue
    • Skeletal
    • Carsiac
    • Visceral (smooth)
  2. What are the Location, Function, Appearance, and Control of Skeletal muscle
    • Location :Skeleton
    • Function: Movement, Heat, Posture
    • Appearance: Striated, Multi-nucleated, fibers parallel
    • Control: Voluntary
  3. What are the Location, Function, Appearance, and Control of Cardiac muscle
    • Location :heart
    • Function: pump blood continuously
    • Appearance: Striated,branching 1 cental nucleus, intercalated discs
    • Control: involuntary
  4. What are the Location, Function, Appearance, and Control of Vinsceral muscle
    • Location :G.I. track, uterus, eye, blood vessels
    • Function: Peristalsis, blood pressure, pupil size, erects hairs
    • Appearance: no striations,one central nucleus, spindle shaped cell
    • Control: involuntary
  5. Functions of muscle tissue
    • Movement
    • Stabilized the body
    • Control shape and size of internal organs
    • Generate heat
    • Aid in moving blood and lymph
  6. Sarcoplasmic recticulum-
    store clalcium
  7. Acetylcholine is the
    neurotransmitter
  8. Contractile protein
    • Actin–thin filament
    • Myosin-thick filament
  9. Regulatory protein
    • Troponin
    • Tropomyosin         > both Cover actin
  10. Structural protein
    • Dystrophin–protein that attaches myofibril to wall of cell
    • Titin
  11. How do you get Myofibril
    a bunch of sacomere put together
  12. A bunch of myofibril put together are called
    muscle cell
  13. When calcium binds to troponin that is what starts
    muscle movement
  14. Molecules do not shorten, but the sarcomere and therefore,
    the muscle does shorten
  15. Isotonic contraction –
    tension is constant but muscle length changes
  16. Concentric isotonic –
    muscle shortens
  17. Eccentric isotonic –
    muscle lengthens (force makes muscle keep moving  b/c it is too heavy)
  18. Isometris contration-
    tension changes but muscles length remains constant
  19. 4 sources of ATP
    • StoresATP (3sec)
    • Storedcreatine phosphate (12sec) 
    • Anaerobicrespiration (30-40sec)
    • Aerobicrespiration (min-hr)
  20. Recruitment-
    the more forceful contraction a muscle needs,the more additional, motor units in that muscle are stimulated to contract
  21. Fast twitch-
    • whitefibers
    • is anaerobic
    • has explosive power fatigues easily
  22. Slow twitch-
    • Redfibers
    • is aerobic
    • has steady power
    • Has endurance
  23. Cell membrane is in muscle is called
    Sarcolemma
  24. Cytoplasm in muscle is called
    sarcoplasm
  25. Contraction in muscle is:
    regulated by cellular calcium
  26. Levels of muscle organization
    • Action & myosin
    • Myofiberils (strands of sarcomeres arranged end on end)
    • Muscle cells or fiber ( bundle of myofibrils)
    • fascicles (bundle of muscle cells)
    • Muscle ( bundle of fascicles)
  27. Epimysium
    Surrounds entire musle
  28. Perimysium
    • surrounds a fascicle
    • CT covering each fascicle
  29. Endomysium
    • thin layer that surrounds each individual muscle cell
    • CT covering each cell
  30. beneath the connective tissue endomysium of each muscle fiber is the:
    Cell membrane sarcolemma
  31. Cytoplasm
    full of contractile proteins arranged in myofibrils
    • 1: Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • 2: Sarcolemma
    • 3: Myofibril
    • 4: Sarcomere
    • 5: Transverse tubule
  32. Sarcomere
    • From "Z" disc to "Z" disc
    • the basic unit
    • Made of thick and thin filaments
  33. Dystrophin
    attaches myofibers to the sarcolemma
  34. Thin filaments
    comprised mostly of the structural protein ACTIN, but also regulatory TROPONIN and TROPMYSIN
  35. Thick filaments
    comprised mostly of structural protein MYOSIN
  36. Carbon binds to _____ which changes the shape of the _________-________ complex and uncovers the myosin binding site on actin, thus beginning the ______ cycle
    • Troponin
    • Troponin-tropomyosin
    • Contraction cycle
  37. Neuromuscular junction
    junction of a motor neuron axon with skeletal muscle cell
  38. Communication between a neuron and an adjacent cell occurs by:
    Neurotransmitter
  39. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter in the
    skeletal muscle
  40. Synapse
    junction between a neuron and another cell
  41. Synaptic cleft
    • gap between two cells
    • neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the gap
  42. Action potential
    moves down nerve of muscle in a wave like pattern
  43. Sliding filament concept of contraction
    • Step 1: ATP hydrolysis
    • Calcium binds to troponin

    • Step 2: Attachment
    • Myosin binds Actin

    • Step 3: Power stroke
    • Myosin crossbridges rotate toward cent of the sarcomer

    • Step 4: Detachment
    • ATP binds Myosin> detaches
  44. 4 sources of ATP for muscle contraction
    • Limited amounts of ATP are Stored in muscle fibers
    • Creatine phosphate pathway (fasted way to get ATP)
    • Fermentation (no oxygen)
    • Cellular respiration (best long term source)
  45. Smooth muscle
    • No striation
    • Limited storage of calcium
    • Contraction regulated by calmodulin
    • Contract and relam slowly

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