aniphys Ch 8 the structural and functional organization of the Nervous system

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aniphys Ch 8 the structural and functional organization of the Nervous system
2013-10-29 08:53:43
nervous system animal physiology ekert

ch 8
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  1. clusters of neuronal somata
  2. neuronal somata that are organized around a mass of nerve processes called
  3. information is exchanged among ganglia through trunks of axons called
  4. series of of ganglia and connectives
    ventral nerve cord
  5. coalescence of neurons at the anterior end of the animal, where many sensory recpetors are located
  6. brain of the octopus contain how many neurons
  7. vertebrate nervous systems can be divided into
    central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  8. contains most of the neuronal somata, it encompasses the entire structure of all interneurons
  9. within the CNS collections of somata of neurons with similar functions are called
  10. within CNS bundles of axons extending form somata are called
  11. bundles of axons from sensory and motor neurons; ganglia that contain the somata of some autonomic neurons; and ganglia that contain the somata of most sensory neurons. found in PNS
  12. Afferent nerves
    carry information towards the CNS
  13. Efferent nerves
    carry information away from CNS (F-off)
  14. Efferent output from CNS can be divided
    somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
  15. voluntary system, motor neurons control skeletal muscles to produce voluntary movement
    somatic nervous system
  16. efferent neurons that modulate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles and the secretory activity of glands. heartbeat, digestion, temperature regulation
    autonomic nervous system
  17. spinal cord divided into
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
  18. outer region of the spinal cord named for the shiny appearance of the myelin sheth
    white matter
  19. centrally located area of the spinal cord contains the somata and dendrites of interneurons and motor neurons, as well as the axons and presynaptic terminals of neurons
    gray matter
  20. has similar composition of blood plasma
    cerebrospinal fluid
  21. afferent axons enter the CNS through the __ on each side of the spinal cord. sensory signals into spinal cord
    dorsal roots
  22. efferent nerve-fibers carry information out eh CNS through the
    ventral roots
  23. somata of spinal motor neurons are located in the ventral gray matter called the
    ventral horn
  24. somata of inter-neurons that receive and transmit sensory information are located in the dorsal gray matter called the
    dorsal horn
  25. afferent axons that synapse onto sensory interneurons within the cord arise from sensory receptor whose somata are located in
    contain all unipolar cells that form special receptor endinging in periphery
    dorsal root ganglia
  26. brains sturctures most twoard the tail
  27. brain structures most towrds the forehead
  28. most caudal part of the brain, where the brain joins the spinal cord. controls respiration and autonomic functions. also recieves and relays sensory information from several modalities
    medulla oblongata
  29. dorsal to the medulla, consist of a pair of hemispheres. contributes to the coordination of motor output, compares and integrates information about muscle stretch positions of joints. nerve signals leave help maintain posture and produce limb accurate movements
  30. consists of fiber tracts that interconnect different regions of the brain
  31. located in the pons, receives and integrates visual and tactile and auditory inputs
    tectum or optic lobe
  32. multilayered collection of cells on the outer surface of the cerebrum
    cerebral cortex
  33. major coordinating center for sensory and motor signaling, serves as relay station for sensory input. under the lateral ventricles
  34. processes information and organizes output that is related to emotions
  35. includes a number of centers that control functions related to survival of the individual; temperature regulation, eating, drinking, sexual appetite
  36. in the hypothalamus controls water and electrolyte balance and secretory activity of the pituitary gland
    neuroendocrine cells
  37. first step in development  of the brain three expanded vesicles
    forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
  38. autonomic nervous system  divided into
    sympathetic and para sympathetic
  39. when an animal is in relaxed or sleeping state without impinging stimuli the
    parasympathetic pathway dominates
  40. when an animal is active or frightened, housekeeping functions are inhibited and physical exertion is enhanced
    sympathetic pathways
  41. all preganglionic neurons are
    cholinergic (neurotransmitter is acetylcholine)
  42. neurotransmitter of parasympathetic postganglionic neurons is
  43. the neurotransmitter of sympathetic postganglionic neurons is
  44. articulation only in one hemisphere left in over 90% humans
    broca's speech area
  45. telencephalon contains
    pallium and  basal nuclei
  46. cervcal nerve
  47. thoracic nerves
  48. lumbar nerves
  49. sacral nerves
  50. coccygeal nerve
  51. fascilulus gracilis
    conciious touch sensations from lower body
  52. fascilulus cuneatus
    conscious touch sensations from upper body
  53. contains cerebrospinal fluid
    central canal
  54. voluntary movements
    lateral cortico-spinal tract