Card Set Information
Urinalysis in Clinical laboratory techniques
collected when animal urinates, best to collect mid-stream to minimize genital contamination
express bladder urine collection
manual compression of bladder, mid-stream best.
Take care not to injure animal
insert sterile catheter into bladder via urethra. Syringe is attached to catheter, urine aspirated out.
Initial should be discarded due to urethral contamination from insertion of catheter
best method for urine culture.
insert needle with syringe into bladder, aspirate into syringe.
Refrigeration of sample
Must record conditions of sample--if can't be tested immediately, refrigerate for up to 8 hours.
refrigeration can cause increase in crystal formation, bacterial growth and degeneration of casts (bacteria cause more alkaline pH).
Bring sample to room temp before testing.
Examination of urine
observe color, turbidity and odor. Record.
Use reagent strips (Multistix). Check expiration and know directions first. Specific gravity is not accurate, cats can get false Leukocyte positives.
perform with refractometer, not accurate on strip.
Lots of suspended particles, spin first and read after.
can be diagnostic, so do it right.
Put urine in tube, spin slowly for 6 minutes. Pour off supernatant. Stain with SEDISTAIN or VOLU-SOL.
place cover slip over one drop. Scan at low power, go up to 400 on anything interesting. USE A REFERENCE
Things seen in urine sediment
: squamous, transitional, renal
: triple phosphate, calcium oxalate, uric acid
: hyaline, granular (coarse or fine), WBC, RBC, epithelial, waxy or mixed
Why urine is yellow
urochrome pigments. Degree depends on concentration.
turbid, particles suspended on it.
Place against letter print background, try to read.
Cloudy urine comes from
RBC, WBC, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, mucous, fat, bacteria or contamination of sample.
Horses usually have cloudy urine, often due to mucous (mucous glands in renal pelvis and ureter)
normally cloudy due to mucous
milky appearance is normal.
Before starting urinalysis
let urine come to room temp
presence of crystals in urine. May or may not be significant.
Types of crystals can be due to
urine pH, concentration and temperature, and solubility of elements.
Some are normal, may not be diagnostically or clinically significant.
Take into account history etc.
decrease in kidney disease or increased fluid intake
increase in increased fluid loss or decreased intake (sweating, panting, diarrhea, vomiting)
pH of urine
samples left at room temp become more alkaline from loss of CO2.
Depends largely on diet in healthy animals
Bacteria increases pH
Bacteria in urine causes what changes
ammonium smell, increased pH, degeneration of casts and cells.
reagent strips usu detect albumin.
False-positive results in alkaline urine depending on diet, UTI or urine retention
Transient proteinuria from muscle exertion, emotional stress, convulsions, after parturition and in neonates.
glucosuria or glycouria.
Only glucose on reagent strips, tablets can be better, detect all sugars
false-positive due to drugs
(epinephrine release, post high-carb meal, IV admin of glucose or post-anesthesia can cause)
formed in incomplete catabolism of fatty acids. Causes a fruity smell.
Often seen in diabetes mellitus
Acidosis caused by ketones.
ketones can cause CNS depression and acidosis.
ketonemia with ketonuria
caused by high fat diets, starvation, fasting, long-term anorexia and imparied liver function.
Only conjugated bilirubin in urine
normal dogs have some, CATS DO NOT (nor do pigs, sheep, horses)
Broken down by short-wave light, keep it in the dark or false-negative
false positives in cats, lots of false negatives. Must examine sediment.
casts. Cats with renal disease often have fatty casts (refractile bodies). They have lipid in renal parenchyma
Best/concentrated urine sample collected when
First thing in morning, pick up water at midnight
sweet, fruity odor of urine
leishmania donovani (Leishmaniasis)
Thin, long oval on slide (promastigate stage)
Giardia lambia cysts
Oval structures, not much detail.
Malassezia sp. in ear infections
fungus, looks like dandilion. Hyphae also present.
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
cutaneous, pulmonary or GI forms. Often seen in herbivores (cattle, goats, sheep)
Gram negative or positive. Some endospores, terminal endospores.
Looks like a dotted line, maybe like a match.
Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme)
vector-borne from deer ticks.
stains a weak gram negative spirochete, coiled or wavy.
gram + spore forming bacilli. Endospores, both bi-polar and terminal.
gram - pink rods, non-spore-forming bacilli.
gram negative bacilli
gram negative encapsulated bacilli
dermatophyte test media
agar turns red when dermatophytes grow
Can use RSM (rapid sporulation) or ESM (enhanced sporulation) or SDA (sabouraud dextrose agar) to accelerate growth
NOT 100% (bacterial and nonpathogenic fungus, use slide)
during estrus cells are
changes in cells during estrus cycle
Intermediate (non-cornified, bigger, nucleus smaller)
Superficial (cornified, bigger, nucleus smaller)
anuclear (cornified, no nucleus)
three portions of ejaculation
sperm-free fraction, sprem-rich fraction, sperm-poor fraction
may be some sperm
first fraction to appear
not useful, discard and replace test tube
used in semen evaluation
milky color and consistency
volume varies between species and animal/age/health.
third and last fraction
not ideal for analysis but sometimes used due to inability to change tubes in time
Most important part in handling of semen
swirling movement of sperm called the wave motion
Evaluated as "very good", "good", "fair" and "poor"
Performed at 40x, first thing performed
nutrition-rich liquid media which adds to life of sperm and supports through freezing.
Bought/provided by ICG
Keeps sperm viable
amount of swirling in gross motility at 40x