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collected when animal urinates, best to collect mid-stream to minimize genital contamination
express bladder urine collection
- manual compression of bladder, mid-stream best.
- Take care not to injure animal
- insert sterile catheter into bladder via urethra. Syringe is attached to catheter, urine aspirated out.
- Initial should be discarded due to urethral contamination from insertion of catheter
- best method for urine culture.
- insert needle with syringe into bladder, aspirate into syringe.
Refrigeration of sample
- Must record conditions of sample--if can't be tested immediately, refrigerate for up to 8 hours.
- refrigeration can cause increase in crystal formation, bacterial growth and degeneration of casts (bacteria cause more alkaline pH).
- Bring sample to room temp before testing.
Examination of urine
- observe color, turbidity and odor. Record.
- Use reagent strips (Multistix). Check expiration and know directions first. Specific gravity is not accurate, cats can get false Leukocyte positives.
- perform with refractometer, not accurate on strip.
- Lots of suspended particles, spin first and read after.
- can be diagnostic, so do it right.
- Put urine in tube, spin slowly for 6 minutes. Pour off supernatant. Stain with SEDISTAIN or VOLU-SOL.
- place cover slip over one drop. Scan at low power, go up to 400 on anything interesting. USE A REFERENCE
Things seen in urine sediment
- epithelial cells: squamous, transitional, renal
- crystals: triple phosphate, calcium oxalate, uric acid
- casts: hyaline, granular (coarse or fine), WBC, RBC, epithelial, waxy or mixed
- mucous strands
Why urine is yellow
urochrome pigments. Degree depends on concentration.
- turbid, particles suspended on it.
- Place against letter print background, try to read.
Cloudy urine comes from
- RBC, WBC, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, mucous, fat, bacteria or contamination of sample.
- Horses usually have cloudy urine, often due to mucous (mucous glands in renal pelvis and ureter)
normally cloudy due to mucous
milky appearance is normal.
Before starting urinalysis
- let urine come to room temp
presence of crystals in urine. May or may not be significant.
Types of crystals can be due to
- urine pH, concentration and temperature, and solubility of elements.
- Some are normal, may not be diagnostically or clinically significant.
- Take into account history etc.
- decrease in kidney disease or increased fluid intake
- increase in increased fluid loss or decreased intake (sweating, panting, diarrhea, vomiting)
pH of urine
- samples left at room temp become more alkaline from loss of CO2.
- Depends largely on diet in healthy animals
- Bacteria increases pH
Bacteria in urine causes what changes
ammonium smell, increased pH, degeneration of casts and cells.
- reagent strips usu detect albumin.
- False-positive results in alkaline urine depending on diet, UTI or urine retention
- Transient proteinuria from muscle exertion, emotional stress, convulsions, after parturition and in neonates.
- glucosuria or glycouria.
- Only glucose on reagent strips, tablets can be better, detect all sugars
- false-positive due to drugs
- (epinephrine release, post high-carb meal, IV admin of glucose or post-anesthesia can cause)
- formed in incomplete catabolism of fatty acids. Causes a fruity smell.
- Often seen in diabetes mellitus
- Acidosis caused by ketones.
- ketones can cause CNS depression and acidosis.
ketonemia with ketonuria
caused by high fat diets, starvation, fasting, long-term anorexia and imparied liver function.
- Only conjugated bilirubin in urine
- normal dogs have some, CATS DO NOT (nor do pigs, sheep, horses)
- Broken down by short-wave light, keep it in the dark or false-negative
false positives in cats, lots of false negatives. Must examine sediment.
casts. Cats with renal disease often have fatty casts (refractile bodies). They have lipid in renal parenchyma
Best/concentrated urine sample collected when
First thing in morning, pick up water at midnight
sweet, fruity odor of urine
leishmania donovani (Leishmaniasis)
- intracellular protozoa
- Thin, long oval on slide (promastigate stage)
Giardia lambia cysts
- protozoan parasite
- Oval structures, not much detail.
- bowling pin.
- Malassezia sp. in ear infections
fungus, looks like dandilion. Hyphae also present.
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
- cutaneous, pulmonary or GI forms. Often seen in herbivores (cattle, goats, sheep)
- Gram negative or positive. Some endospores, terminal endospores.
- Looks like a dotted line, maybe like a match.
Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme)
- vector-borne from deer ticks.
- stains a weak gram negative spirochete, coiled or wavy.
- Wavy line
gram + spore forming bacilli. Endospores, both bi-polar and terminal.
gram - pink rods, non-spore-forming bacilli.
gram negative bacilli
gram negative encapsulated bacilli
- dermatophyte test media
- agar turns red when dermatophytes grow
- Can use RSM (rapid sporulation) or ESM (enhanced sporulation) or SDA (sabouraud dextrose agar) to accelerate growth
- NOT 100% (bacterial and nonpathogenic fungus, use slide)
during estrus cells are
- changes in cells during estrus cycle
- Parabasal (non-cornified)
- Intermediate (non-cornified, bigger, nucleus smaller)
- Superficial (cornified, bigger, nucleus smaller)
- anuclear (cornified, no nucleus)
- three portions of ejaculation
- sperm-free fraction, sprem-rich fraction, sperm-poor fraction
- may be some sperm
- watery-looking fluid
- first fraction to appear
- not useful, discard and replace test tube
- used in semen evaluation
- milky color and consistency
- volume varies between species and animal/age/health.
- third and last fraction
- not ideal for analysis but sometimes used due to inability to change tubes in time
Most important part in handling of semen
- swirling movement of sperm called the wave motion
- Evaluated as "very good", "good", "fair" and "poor"
- Performed at 40x, first thing performed
- nutrition-rich liquid media which adds to life of sperm and supports through freezing.
- Bought/provided by ICG
- Keeps sperm viable
amount of swirling in gross motility at 40x