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Teacher centered orientation....
T role is to provide info and supervise practice
uses incentives & rewards
student centered theories (3)
- information processing
learners are curious
collaboration NOT competition
importance of language and socializing
authentic activities are best
scaffolding is important
shared reading/lit circles
compares mind to computer
Teacher serves as model-->theory?
situated learning theory
social and cultural diversity
solve inequities and injustices
reading and writing are interactive processes of meaning making
focuses on comprehension
interpretation are individualized b/c each students brings different knowledge and experience to reading
cognitive strategies used to achieve a goal: visualizing, organizing, revising
- pragmatics (function)
levels of scaffolding? (5)
lit focus units
(Types of instructional program?)
(Types of instructional program?)
three ways to differentiate instruction:
steps to the reading process (5)
steps to the writing process (5)
reading and writing are ______ processes
writer's craft-->"the six traits"
- word choice
- sentence fluency
four ways to assess students' learning
3 reading levels
diagnostic assessments identify students'....
- strengths and weaknesses
- provide instruction to address problem areas
some diagnostic assessments include: (2)
- running records
- informal reading inventories
common core standards emphasize the importance of fostering children's interest in
- developing & understanding written language
stages of reading and writing
Before, reading skills were taught as _________, children's _______ is now thought of as a tool for learning about the world
Reading and writing are processes of constructing _______
Piaget's description of learning as the modification of cognitive structures and children as active learners is fundamental to _______ learning theories
effective teachers know that students are often more highly motivated to read and write when they are given the opportunity to ___________
You want children to read to locate and remember information from a history selection, so you plan activities to help them take on an ________ stance
Phonics instruction involves teaching children to recognize the correspondence between the smallest unit of sound, known as ___________, and ___________, the letters or letter combinations used in print.
Readers may change the words of a text they read aloud because of regional or cultural differences in ___________, and teachers should be concerned if ___________ is also changed.
Student comprehension is improved when students set a ______________(purpose, schema, guide) for reading before they read.
Reading is a _______(task, skill, process) through which readers create ___________(phonemes, strategies, meaning)
You want to find out how fluently a child reads the text she is using for buddy reading. You decide to administer__________(running records, anecdotal notes, an informal reading inventory).
You want to plan instruction to help a student with the word identification errors she makes while reading aloud, but you don’t know what area to target. A __________(miscue analysis, running record, Names test) would reveal whether the student is struggling with certain patterns of words more than others.
A teacher who wants to know what strategies his students use when reading would learn the most from using a __________(traditional test, classroom assessment tool, rubric) designed for the next book students read.
classroom assessment tool
The concept that children develop an awareness of functions of literacy and learn to interact with reading and writing in life is called __________(interactive readiness, functional literacy, emergent literacy).