History exam 110b # 2

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History exam 110b # 2
2013-11-02 11:16:24
Walia Troy Sargent history 110b

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  1. French and Indian war
    • French and Indian war
    • English vs. French and free Indians French encourage the Indians to be very brutal
    • They launch a lot of attacks French also tell Indians to scalp people
    • It's a way of counting victims English won and conquered New France and changed the name to canada
  2. Stamp tax
    • It's a special tax on any printed document
    • Newspaper, magazine, will, playing cards
    • It will have to be stamped with a special stamp
    • It is suppose to go into effect in November of 1765
    • They have a few months notice
    • The colonists don't like this and claim taxation without representation
    • People begin getting together and form the patriots
    • Patriots begin stealing and burning the stamps (so they couldn't be used and the law was unenforceable)
    • English were pissed
    • In march of 1766 repeal the tax
  3. Boston tea party
    • Tea was very expensive because it was from India and britian wouldn't let the colonies trade directly for it with India they had to buy it in Britain
    • You can buy tea direct from India But only one company can do this
    • The east India tea company
    • So they pretty much get a monopoly
    • Other tea companies go bankrupt
    • So they get angry
    • In boston harbor there are boxes of the tea direct from India
    • Some Bostonians throw the tea off the ship (after taking it over) and throw all 92,000 pounds of tea into the ocean and destroy it They dressed up as native Americans English are pissed (because they thought they were doing us a favor with this law)
    • English close Boston harbor to punish Boston They also put Massachusetts under military law
    • The civilian government is closed
    • The British military takes over
  4. Lord dunmore
    • He really hates this idea and slavery (he is England)
    • In November of 1775 he offers freedom to any black man who fights for England against the USA When you swear an oath to the king you are free
    • He creates the first detachment of black soldiers
    • Called the royal Ethiopian regiment
    • They have an armband that has three words on it "liberty to slaves" People who join his army are called black loyalists
    • If found out they might be killed
  5. Yorktown
    • Battle of Yorktown
    • Town on the coast of Virginia in October of 1971
    • There are 11,000 British soldiers under the command of (general) lord Charles Cornwallis
    • The USA army is also in Virginia near Yorktown under the command of George Washington
    • British army is trapped by the ocean
    • Washington attacks and the British get closer and closer to the sea
    • British are planning on getting on ships and going to New York if they get too close to the ocean
    • French navy arrives and blockade the sea
    • English can no longer escape
    • Cornwallis surrenders (as long has his men are cared for)
    • Washington accepts
  6. Louis xvi
    • His wife is Marie Antoinette
    • She is not French she is from Austria
    • He is not very intelligent
    • He is extremely devoted to his wife and not so much with politics
    • He is very religious
    • He is spending too much money Because of his spending in Versailles
    • He got involved in the American revolution
    • By 1788 he really needs money
    • There are whispers going around that he is going to tax the nobility Members of the nobility complain They ask louis to call a meeting of Frances governing body (estates general)
    • This group represents the 3 estates
    • This group had not met since 1615
    • Louis agrees to this
    • 1789 they have elections for the estates general
    • They meet in May of 1789 in Versailles
    • The representatives of the first two estates refuse to sit in the same room as the third group
    • In June of 1789 the members of the third estate decide to create their own governing body
    • they call themselves the National Assembly They say the estates general no longer exists
    • They want to rule with Louis XVI France becomes a limited monarchy

    • Louis detests the revolution and wants to be an absolute monarch (people don't know this)
    • Louis wants to leave and return with an army of mercenaries He wants to go to Belgium
    • He and his wife plan to leave during the night in a coach
    • This doesn't work (runners on horseback track him down)
    • Village of Varennes
    • They stop for lunch in this village
    • He is arrested in this town with his family
    • This event is called the flights to Varennes
    • After this he becomes a prisoner Other kings worry about the French monarcy being held prisoner For their own sake
    • April of '92 France declares war on Austria
    • Prussia joins with Austria in this effort August of 92 the National Assembly abolish monarchy and they make France a republic Louis has been sending letters to other countries to ask them to invade to free him They put louis on trial for treason
    • They decide to kill him
    • They invented the guillotine for this purpose
    • A whole bunch of countries are watching this and consiter this murder and more countries declare war on France
  7. Robespierre
    • Called the committee of public safety
    • Leader is Robespierre
    • He is a fan of the enlightenment and Rousseau
    • They suspend all laws and they begin doing what they wish
    • July 93-94 this period is called "the terror"They arrest anyone they want
    • They would then kill them With a guillotine or shooting Royalists Christians
    • They killed around 200,000 people in one year
    • They ban the Catholic Church
    • They come up with a new religion called "the cult of reason" You worship reason and logic
    • They get rid of saints
    • Created new saints for the cult Voltaire is the #1 new saint
    • Rousseau is also included
    • They don't like the current calendar
    • They create a reasonable calendar12 months 3 weeks in a month
    • They change the names of the months
    • 10 days in a week
    • Change the names of days to: day one, day two, etc ...They also don't like the English system of measures
    • They create a new system
    • Metric system
    • Based on 10s
    • In July of 1794, Robespierre Other 11 guys on the committee don't trust him
    • They decide to arrest him and execute him
    • After they arrest him he gets a pistol and tries to kill himself
    • He just blows his jaw off
    • They put a bandage on his jaw so he looked better Executed him the next day by guillotine
    • He refuses to go and begins to cry
    • After his death the committee decides to give up power
  8. Edmund burke
    • Edmund Burke Wrote a book called "reflection on the revolution in France"(1790)
    • He says that the revolution (creation of National Assembly and their law changes) will cause some very bad things including violence
    • He thinks that people should be guided by tradition And the French were changing too quickly
    • Edmund is considered to be the father of conservatism
  9. He goes into exile on the island of ElbaIs given a castle, servants, and a private army with 11,000 soldiersHis mother in law went with him
    • Louis the XVIIINew French rulerPeople did not like him
    • In march of 1815 Napoleon takes his private army and puts them onto ships and goes to FrancePeople realize what is happeningThe French army is told to arrest him
    • Napoleon told them to shoot him instead
    • They like him though
    • They join Napoleon instead
    • He goes to Paris and within a few weeks he is emperor againHe rules France for 100 days (called the 100 days)The countries that don't like him call him a criminal and go after him
    • Teem up and call themselves the 7th coalition He realizes he should invade first He invades Belgium and has a huge battle
    • The battle of Waterloo British fight the French to a tie in the morning but in the evening the Prussians come and help and Napoleon looses He returns to France and abdicates and waits to be arrested
    • He is exiled again this time much farther away (st. Helena)He dies in 1821 we thought he was poisoned
  10. Trafalgar
    • Battle of tralfgar Spain was napoleons ally
    • He wants to invade britian by using the Spanish and French navy together
    • Would have soldiers on the ships to invade England The French and Spanish navy are in tralfgar in Spain
    • 48 ships total
    • The British know this and have 32 ships
    • French and Spanish leave the harbor The British commander (lord horatio Nelson) arranges his ships in two horizonal lines against the vertical line of the French
    • This is new
    • French loose 32 ships in this battle and 16,000 menBritish do not loose a single ship and loose 1,600 men
    • Nelson did not survive the battle
    • British would sink any French ships around the sea even trading ships
  11. John WesleyWesley
    • 1735 in London John Wesley was a minister in the Church of England and he was walking down the street He realizes that Jesus died on the cross for his sins and all of his sins were forgiven
    • Basically he rediscovered justification by faith He decides to travel around England and talk to people about justification by faith and forms his own church
    • Forms the Methodist church
    • You would be called an evangelical if you believed his ideas Some stay in the Church of England and some become Methodist but if you believed that Jesus died on the cross for your sins you were an evangelical They converted a lot of people
  12. James somerset
    • James somerset Born in Africa and sold as a slave to Virginia in North America In 1769 his master moved to England with him (masters name was Charles Stuart)In 1771 he runs away from his master(Not many black people in England so it's dangerous for him to be out)
    • Evangelicals hide him
    • 1772 he is recaptured He is going to be sent back to Virginia Evangelicals get involved and said that James was free because it was illegal in England The case went to the court in 1772
    • Called: somerset vs StuartChief Justice in England (Supreme Court) tries the case
    • The state of slavery is not legal Somerset went free
    • And because of this so do every other slave (in England not the ones in the colonies or the islands)
  13. James watt
    • Steam engine
    • Uses steam power to create motionPiston in the engine would spin and you could spin cotton extremely quicklyInvented by James watt in 1770
  14. Eli WhitneyWhitney
    Cotton GinThis takes the seeds out of cottonInvented by Eli Whitney in 1793
  15. John mcadam
    • John macadam (1756-1836)Developed a technique called macadamization to make roads
    • Would lay down a layer of stone
    • Then would flatten the stone with a roller
    • Then a second layer of stone with a roller
    • Then a third layer of stone with a roller
    • Then a layer of tar on top with a roller
    • He also put drainage ditches on the side of roads
  16. Factory act of 1833
    Factory act of 1833No child under age 9 permitted to work9-13 can only work 9 hours a day And must have 2 hours of school a day
  17. Ten hours bill
    Ten hours bill (1847)If you are under 18 you cannot work more than 10 hours a dayWomen cannot work more than 10 hours a dayWomen begin to leave the workforce because of this
  18. George Stephenson
    • Railway Appeared around 1825Inventor was named George Stevenson
    • He created a locomotive with steam engine
    • The initial speed was around 30 mph
    • First big railway was Liverpool Manchester railway
    • By 1850 they have layed 6,000 miles of track
    • 13 thousand by 1870
  19. Treaty of nanjing
    • War between china and England 1839-1843 tried to stop England from trading opium
    • England wins because they have had an industrial revolution China is forced to sign the treaty of NankingHong Kong is given to Britain
    • 5 Chinese harbors are given to Britain
    • Extraterritoriality for British citizens in china They can't arrest British people in china
    • Like diplomatic immunity
    • Fine of $21 million in silver
  20. Tsushima straits
    • They decide to attack japan
    • In 1905 they go around India and meet in Tsushima straits to attack
    • Japanese win this battle Ships lost
    • Japan. - lost 3 tiny torpedo boats - 100 dead
    • Russia. - 44 ships sunk- 4,400 dead
    • After this battle the Russians give up
  21. Karl Marx
    • Born in Germany in the Rhine Land
    • His family was distinctively Jewish Many people in his family (and his ancestors) were rabbis
    • The year before he was born his family became Lutherans in order to fit in
    • He goes to college (university of Berlin) to study philosophy
    • He stays for 5 years and got his PhD by the endDuring his college life he is influenced by George Hegel(1770-1831)
    • He is a German philosopher
    • He has very complex ideas
    • He thought human history was always about a conflict between ideas
    • You have something called an idea (or thesis) The idea contains a contradiction within itself
    • That contradiction creates the opposite of the idea Or the antithesis The thesis and antithesis combine to create a synthesis
    • Which is something new
    • Eg. (Thesis) beautiful + (antithesis) ugly = (synthesis) average
    • Marx changes Hegel's ideas slightlySays that history is the conflict between social classes

    • Wrights a book called "communist manifesto" (1848) He is calling for revolution He was radical even as a young man because he hated religion
    • He was atheist
    • He is asked to leave Germany and. Is sent into exile
    • He goes to FranceHe is sent out of France againHe ends up wandering from one country to another
    • He moves to London England This becomes his home for the rest of his life
    • He doesn't really work
    • His wife and children and him never have money and live in poverty
    • He drank, smoked, and had giant boils on his bottom
    • He studies a lot (every day)He would go to the British museum (library)
    • Historical materialism (his idea from Hegel)These ideas come from Hegel and the enlightenment Enlightenment hated tradition so it influenced Marxism

    • Phase/ mode of production > exploiter + exploited
    • Ancient > master + slave
    • Contradiction causes class conflict
    • This class conflict causes a revolution that moves to a new phase
    • Feudal > lord + serf
    • Contradiction causes class conflict
    • Class conflict leads to revolution Capitalism > bourgeoisie + proletariat
    • Contradiction causes class conflict
    • Class conflict creates a revolution
    • Communism > no classes + no exploitation
    • No class conflict and you get paradise

    • Assumptions in Marxism
    • If you follow Marxism you assume these things
    • Economic determinism Means everything is about money From job to wife to sports team you like
    • Ruling class controls the culture Rulers use music, literature, and religion to keep you under control Especially true of religion
    • Violence can be good If it over throws capitalism If it speeds up the movement to communism

    Consequences of Marxism Provides a substitute religion for millions of people Caused many revolutions China, Cuba, Vietnam, Russia Enormous bloodshed To bring about communism
  22. Louisiana purchase
    1803 we have Thomas Jefferson as presidentHe purchased the Louisiana purchase from Napoleon for 15 million$He got 800,000 square milesWent from Minnesota to Louisiana to Rocky Mountains
  23. Missouri compromise
    Missouri compromiseThe north agrees to let Missouri in as a slave stateIf the south agrees to let Maine in as a free stateSlavery would not be allowed north of 36 degrees 30 minutes
  24. Compromise of 1850
    Happened when we won against Mexico and got a bunch of landFor the later states they agree to popular sovereigntyLet the people living in the area vote on weather they are free or slaveStrict fugitive slave act is put into effect
  25. Nat turner
    • Slave rebellion lead by nat turner
    • Lived in Virginia in south Hampton county
    • Nat turner was an educated black slave
    • Loved to read the bible
    • He got 50 slaves with horses and guns and went around killing white people
    • He kills about 60 people mainly white women and children
    • He is captured and hanged
    • This causes slaveowners go crack down even harder Free blacks also get in trouble
  26. A. Lincoln
    • By 1860 there is lots of tension between the north and south
    • It's an election year and the republicans are putting up a man named Abraham Lincoln who is against slavery
    • Democrats had Stephen A. Douglas and John C. Breckenridge
    • Lincoln wins
    • In December of 1860 South Carolina voted to secede from the USA A few other states like Texas and Georga leave as well and become the confederate states There are some USA soldiers in South Carolina in fort sumpter They are flying the USA flag
    • They are attacked by artillery and they surrender

    • Lincoln is outraged and asks congress for 50,000 men to quell the rebellion
    • Congress gives him the men and when this happens other states begin to leave Virginia, Carolina's, tenn, Alabama, Flordia, Arkansas, etc
    • Their capital becomes Richmond Virginia
    • By April of 1865 the only state left of the confederacy is VA
    • General lee is in Richmond defending General grant is the USA general and is attacking them
    • General lee surrenders bringing the war to the end

    Lincoln never enjoyed this victoryTwo weeks after the war was over he is killed by John Wilkes boothSlavery ends with the passing of the 13th amendment
  27. Dred scot
    • He is a slave from Missouri
    • He left with his master to Illinois and Wisconsin Stays in these areas from 1830-32
    • He waits till 1842 when his master dies (because he likes his master) to say because I was in a free state I have been free
    • Family does not like this and they go to court
    • In 1857 the case "Sandford vs Scott" reaches the Supreme Court Court rules that Scott is still a slave
    • Says you cannot stop someone from owning a slave in any state
  28. Gettysburg
    • USA army encounters him about 20 miles inside Pennsylvania At Gettysburg Battle of Gettysburg
    • 3 day battle (1-3 of July)
    • First two days a lot of people die Third day general lee decides to tell his men to attack up a hill
    • USA troops are seated at the top of a hill
    • They are not allowed to stop until they reach Cemetery ridge at the top of the hill He sends 12,500 men to charge up the hill
    • USA attacks them on the way up with artillery Southerners get to the top of the hill
    • Don't see too many USA soldiers
    • They are hiding behind a wall and pop out and kill southerners
    • USA wins
    • 1,100 of the southerners die that day and the battle ends
    • 5,000 southerners die during the 3 day period
    • The southerners return to the south
  29. Berlin west Africa conference
    • Between 1880-1900 Europeans colonized all of Africa
    • Mostly France, britian, Germany, and Belgium
    • They held a conference called the Berlin west Africa conference in Berlin Germany 1884-188514 countries were present They were there to discuss how to divide Africa
    • Agreed on 3 rules if you want a piece
    • You must make a public announcement that you want an area
    • You must set up a local government
    • You must encourage trade in this area
  30. H. Spencer
    • Herbert spencer
    • English writer who is interested in evolution
    • Came up with the idea of social Darwinism and popularizes it
    • "Survival of the fittest"
    • He said that some people are more fit to survive than others
    • Causes racismClass conflictApply it to nations
  31. Franco-Prussian war
    • Bismarck starts a war with France in 1870 called Franco-Prussian war
    • French are overconfident Prussians humiliate them and enter Paris in 1871
    • French sign a peace treaty They have to give up Alsace-Lorraine And pay 5 million dollars to Prussia plus the cost of occupation

    This victory impresses a lot of the smaller German nationsThey join prussiaThis whole area is now called German
  32. Triple alliamce
    Germany was afraid of France attacking themThey make alliances with Austria-Hungary and ItalyThis is called the triple alliance
  33. Triple entente
    France is looking for friends after fighting with Prussia(Germany)They make an alliance with Russia and BritainThey are called the triple entente
  34. Franz Ferdinand
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand from Austria
    • He is the heir to the Austrian throne His wife and himself decide to visit Bosnia and visit Sarajevo
    • They are an official trip with their children
    • There are people from Serbia are planning to kill Ferdinand Gavrilo Princip is the killer
    • The limousine with the archduke in it gets lost and has to reverse and Gavrilo goes up and killed both of them

    the resulting threat and the alliance system cause a domino effect that causes wwi
  35. Schlieffen plan
    • Schlieffen plan
    • Knows Germany will be fighting a 2 front war
    • They would ignore Russia (they didn't have a super strong military and were poor)
    • Would attack France first
    • Would go through Belgium in a hook shape Go straight to Paris They thought they could defeat the French in 6 weeks then go to conquer Russia

    this didnt work and when it failed it started trench warfare
  36. Battle of Somme
    • Battle of the Somme
    • British and French decided they needed a giant attack against the Germans Hoping to turn the war in their favor
    • When the attack begins it's going to be mainly British soldiers with the French adding in later
    • British shell the Germans for one week before the attack 24 hours a day
    • Fired 11million shells
    • British then go over the trench and attack over no mans land on July 1 1916
    • Germans built good trenches and are alive
    • They use machine guns to kill all the British
    • In this one day 19,000 British died49,000 wounded
    • British continue attacking and the French join in
    • They continue attacking from July to November In this entire time they only gained 6 miles
    • Casualty count was about 1.2 million Killed or badly wounded
  37. zimmerman telegram
    • Zimmerman telegram
    • Zimmerman is a German diplomat in berlin He sent a secret telegram from Germany to Mexico He said if Mexico entered WWI against the USA that Germans would reward Mexico
    • Reward would be the USA Midwest going back to Mexico Meant to be secret but the British got ahold of it
    • Gave it to president Woodrow Wilson Wilson gave it to the newspapers In April of 1917 Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany
    • We have entered WWI
  38. Treaty of Brest-litchovik
    Treaty of Brest-LitovskRussia has to give German a bunch of land which is full of factories and coal and wheat Wheat gives them a way to make food
  39. Ludendorff offensives
    Ludendorff offensives

    First Ludendorff offensiveSuppose to begin march 21He is going to attack the British side of the western front and push them back to the English ChannelThen the British will leaveThe attack begins Mustard gas and shellsThey begin well After a week the Germans gain 40 milesGermans only get these 40 miles and are dying is massive numbers 75,000 German people dieStops on April 5th

    Second Ludendorff offensiveScheduled for April 9thStill against the British but further northGermans gain ground at first but then they stopSoldiers refuse to moveThey get combat fatigue and refuse to moveEnds April 19th

    Third Ludendorff offensive Suppose to begin on May 27thGoing to attack the French and bowl their way through to Paris and take it over They are 70 miles away from Paris Germans gain 20 miles on day oneMay 30th Germans get 13 more milesGermans begin encountering new soldiersIt's the USA army with 650,000 soldiers by the end of May10,000 more each dayGerman attack begins to collapse
  40. Theme: major events, causes and consequences of the industrial revolution. Know what happens to countries that fail to industrialize
  41. orgins of WWI. Long term and short term effects