Geog 112: Lec 3

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  1. Paleartic Realm
    • -Largest realm
    • -all of Russia, china, Europe, north africa, middle east
  2. Tundra
    • -areas of extreme cold
    • ·2 seasons (cold, and moderately not cold which is summer
    • ·no trees, extremely short growing seasons
    • ·snow and ice is present much of the time
    • ·really limits animal bio diversity
    • ·some animals don’t even exist (NO AMPHIBIANS)
  3. Taiga
    • -Boreal forest
    • ·Same as Boreal forest because that’s how Canadians refer to theres
    • ·TAIGA = called that in Russia
    • ·Quite cold and lots of evergreen trees which needles can stay on because waxy coating protects them
    • ·Have 2 actual seasons (Winter and Summer)
    • ·Longer seasons than Tundra (very short seasons)
  4. Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • ·      Mixed forest (forests we have in northeast US)
    • ·      Have four distinct seasons
    • ·      Trees lose their leaves
    • ·      Also area where you find animals that hibernate
    • ·      More problematic than losing the rainforest
    • ·      Lots of diversity in animal kingdom
  5. Grassland
    • ·      Dominant with grass, lots of grass
    • ·      A few trees but not a lot of trees
    • ·      WOODLAND = see in movies
    • ·      Lots of grazers and large carnivores (that prey on unguila
  6. Chaparral
    • -woodland shrub 
    • ·      UCLA campus
    • ·      Mediterranean
    • ·      Very much woodland scrub, and chaparral
    • ·      Plants that are hearty and have waxy leaves
    • ·      Pine trees,
  7. Desert
    • ·      Lots and lots of deserts in this realm
    • ·      Top 3 classic deserts
    • ·      3 million square miles and expanding everyday
    • ·      Arabian desert is a million square miles (GOBY is half a million square miles in Mongolia, and China)
    • ·      Doesnt not include Himalayas (Himalayas are border)
  8. Mountains
    • ·      Does not include Himalayas (that’s the realm border)
    • ·      Yuraj mountains and Swiss alps are included
    • ·      Lots of bio diversity because realm is so vast
  9. Biomes are determined by
    plants and climate
  10. Laurasia
    -combination of modern day north America and Eurasia
  11. Bering Strait
    • -50 miles apart between Russia and Alaska
    • -great migration of animals
  12. Bering Land bridge
    • -west side of US, EAST of RUSSIA
    • ·      Missing from traditional maps
    • ·      Absolutely possible if you live near the coast, it is indeed possible to stand on your porch on Alaska and look across and see Russia
    • ·      Now there is sea between Russia and Alaska
    • ·      59 miles apart (from Irvine, to LA)
    • ·      Easy for birds
  13. Polar bears
    • ·      Travel back and forth in search for food
    • ·      And arctic fox is in this area
    • ·      Very good swimmers but they need to rest, and sit on ice
    • ·      Need big chunks of ice so they don’t get exhausted while looking for food
  14. Artic Fox Climate Change
    • ·      They are being badly impacted by climate change because they change color in Spring based on the length of the day
    • ·      Not based on how much snow is on the ground
    • ·      Length of day x season makes them brownish
    • ·      If they are turning brown they would be easily to be seen if there was snow on the ground
    • ·      But because they remain white way after the snow is melted, they are easy pray for other carnivores
  15. Walrus
    • -use region around strait
    • ·      Also an animal that is being badly impacted by climate change
    • ·      10,000 walrus’s picture is comedy (called a hall out)
    • ·      A) to rest, and b) to gather
    • ·      More likely to catch disease
  16. Musk ox
    • ·      Used to occur on both sides of strait
    • ·      Hunted to exctinction in Russia
    • ·      By late 1800’s they were all gone from Russia
    • ·      There are small populations
  17. Why is latitude orientation important?
    it allows the freedom of movement in the realms
  18. What are some characteristics/requirements for domestication?
    • 1.Flexible diet
    • -can not be picky eater
    • 2. Rapid growth rate
    • 3. Ability to breed in captivity
    • 4. Non-aggressive
    • 5. Won't flee.
    • -cant be easily scared
  19. how many animals have been truly domesticated?
  20. Which was the first domesticated animal?
    the dog
  21. Sheep
    • -first domesticated animal for food
    • ·      Used dogs to get to sheep
    • ·      Dogs helped with the herding
    • ·      All in middle east
  22. Pigs were first domesticated in
    -domesticated in China
  23. Cows were first domesticated in
    • -Every cow on the planet today was manufactured by humans
    • -does not occur in wild
  24. Horses were first domesticated in
  25. Donkeys were first domesticated in
    -African desert
  26. Cats were domesticated to
    to help rodent problems
  27. Silkworm domestication
    • ·      Only insect that is fully domesticated (chinese)
    • ·      They are so domesticated that they cannot be returned to the wild
  28. 2 animals that are sort of domesticated animals:
    • 1) Honey bee
    • ·      valuable as a pollinator
    • ·      worker animal
    • 2) Pidgeon
    • ·      took pictures during world war 2
    • ·      first remote sensing in history
    • ·      food
  29. we consider the honey bee and pidgeon domesticated because
    they do jobs for us
  30. Biodiversity Hotspots and pollution
    • ·      Huge swaths are lightly polluted
    • ·      Lots of habitats cant be hotspots due to dam building and trees being cut down
  31. Mediterranean Basin
    • -hotspot
    • ·      8,000 years of human settlement and habitat modification
    • ·      2nd longest civilization center in the world
    • ·      single civilization that wasn’t bothered
    • ·      the largest is China
    • -home to over 220 terrestrial species and 25 are endemic
  32. What are some of the animals that are often found in Mediterranean climates?
    • -"disc tongue" frog; 11 species are endemic to the region
    • -1/3 of salamanders
    • -tortoises and turtles
    • -gibraltar ape
    • -iberian lynx
    • -jaguar,
    • -mediterranean monk seal,
    • -barbary deer
  33. Disc Tongued Frog
    • -Found in mediterranean region
    • -TOUNGE DOESN'T EXTEND, captures insects w/ mouth & hands.
    • -Relic species(relics of what used to be larger group)
  34. Relic species
    • -hasn't changed overtime
    • -most extinct because of human conflict
  35. Monk seal
    • -flagship species
    • -extremely endangered
  36. Barbary or Gibraltar ape
    • -the only ape of Europe
    • ·      Mountain ranges of Morocco and Algeria
    • ·      found mainly on island of Gibraltar
    • ·      Pretty dramatic variations of climate and topography from highest regions to the lowest
    • ·      These mountains are considered a hotspot bc they have a really wide array of habitats
    • ·      Have some of the most remarkable endemic species in the world
    • ·      Over hunting, firewood collection, damming, etc are affecting the biodiversity in the region
    • ·      The damming of the ganjes river has caused many problems
  38. Panda History
    • ·      Roosevelts go to China to hunt pandas in 1920’s
    • ·      They kill a panda and bring back dead panda
    • ·      So, western hunters started flooding over to China to go panda hunting
    • ·      Lady goes with hunters to China and find baby panda
    • ·      She decides to smuggle it back in US and keep it as a pet
    • ·      Problem, she couldn’t figure out how to keep it alive
    • ·      Gives it to Zoo in Chicago and everyone goes to see it
    • ·      PANDA DIES in under a year
    • ·      Ruth is universally acknowledged for starting this Pandemonium
  39. Problem with panda from evolutionary point of view
    • ·      People are the ones keeping pandas alive
    • ·      If people weren’t on this planet, pandas would be going extinct
    • 1) pandas don’t like eachother at all
    • 2) they don’t wana be together
    • 3) They don’t like SEX at all
    • 4) Pandas only ovulate once a year (shes only fertile for 2-3 days a year)
    • 5) they can only have offspring every 2 years (they are only fertile for 16 years)
    • 6) which means a female is only able to have a total of 8 offspring
    • 7)  the chance of them getting pregnant is very small
    • 8) they are the size of a stick of butter and get rolled and crushed frequently by the parents
    • 9) they have twins bc of high likelihood that one will die
    • 10) Once they get old enough to eat, they eat bamboo
    • 11) 99% of pandas diet is bamboo leaves and shoots
    • 12) pandas digestive system is carnivorous
    • 13) Panda does not move around a lot bc it has low energy from eating bamboo
    • 14) 60 species of bamboo that the panda can eat
    • 15) pandas have to consume about 30 pounds of bamboo everyday to stay full
    • 16) spend 16 hours a day just eating
    • 17) every bamboo species dies out after 100 years
    • 18) for how much time and money we spend on pandas, there are more species that are greater meaning to the environment than the pandas
    • 19)pandas are one animal that are not helping the environment
    • -not spreading seeds
    • -not controlling anything
    • -nobody eats them
  40. Golden Snub Nosed Monkey
    • ·      Are unique that there food source is lichens
    • ·      Help spread lichens and are important in ecosystem
    • ·      They aid in stabilizing soils
    • ·      ENDEMIC and important to the region
  41. Sichuan Takin
    • ·      Goat antelope that is related to sheep
    • ·      Can be 4 feet tall and can weigh 600 pounds
    • ·      ENDEMIC and important to the region
  42. Pheasant
    • -bird
    • -greatest number of pheasants in the world in this region
  43. Snow leopard
    • -spread across entire realm in small numbers
    • -more related to tigers than leopards
  44. Red (or lesser) Panda
    • ·      One similiarlty to the panda is that they eat same as panda and they cannot digest
    • ·      WHAT MAKES THEM DIFFERENT is that they also eat other food, mushrooms, insects, fish, lichens, small mammals, birds, etc
    • Conservation:
    • ·      Species that was wide spread and north America came across
    • ·      Interesting to see how this species came
    • ·      In india they successfully reproduced these and gave them food
  45. Caucasus
    • -new bio hotspot
    • -rugged landscape a lot of species
    • - In Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran, Armenia
    • -lots of conflict going on which is problematic to the animals
    • -lots of illegal hunting up in mountains
  46. Beluga Sturgeon
    • -largest freshwater fish in Europe
    • -16-26ft long, 700lbs
    • ·      Very slow growing and are APEX predators
    • ·      Very large and feed on other fish
    • ·      Will eat seals and birds
    • ·      Don’t mature for 10-15 years
    • ·      Over harvesting of Caviar has caused 90% decline in beluga sturgeon population
  47. Lamprey
    • -have mean set of teeth and suck insides out of fish 
    • -Manage to travel from Caspian sea to our shores
    • -3 species of lampreys that occur in this hot spot
    • -evolutionary they are there to control populations of other fish
Card Set:
Geog 112: Lec 3
2013-10-28 04:43:33

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