Psychology: Chapter 4 (Sensation and perception) part 2
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determine words, identify speaker, localize sound in space
- differentiate objects
- determine position motion shape, texture
- make contact with long term memory
- we store images of encountered objects
- we can recognize objects based on their familiarity
problems with templatic hypothesis
- we can recognize things we've never seen before
- we can recognize objects from new angles
- we can recognize objects when features are missing
- achieved by:
- edge detection
- determining figure group
what is the sensory input and perceptual output of vision?
- sensory input: 2-D array of color and luminance values
- perceptual output: 3-D objects
what is sensory input and perceptual output of audition?
- sensory input: sequence of air pressure values
- perceptual output: words
How do we identify edges?
enhance contrast (ex. mach bands)
adjacent neurons inhibit each other to enhance contrast
how does the herman grid exhibit lateral inhibition?
black squares make the white pathways more white, so corners appear darker
how do we find lines in segmentation?
- each neuron responds to a point in the visual field
- When a bank of on-center, off-surround cells are jointly firing, this indicates a line
determining what is object and what is environment
- heuristics for organizing visual objects
- good continuation
distance between the eyes causes the visual scene to appear slightly differently on the two retinas
texture density gradient
- less density in same images = indicates closer proximity
- more density =distance
how does light effect our visual perception?
location and effects of light source give us depth cues
we can tell about an object's relative position based on the objects in front of and behind that object
4 cues to object location
- binocular disparity
- light source-depth cues
- texture density gradient
disregarding irrelevant surface materials in order to make contact w. long term memory
- be able to understand that colors remain the same even in different lightings
- example of normalization
top down processing in visual perception
we formulate a hypothesis about the identity of a stimulus, select and examine relevant aspects of the stimulus to check
brain uses how much eyes turn to view nearby objects to determine depth perception
rooms which play with linear perspective and distance clues
when two lines begin to form a triangle and there are two lines in between those other lines, the two lines inbetween appear to be different in size
motion after effects
if you stare at a moving image and then look at a stationary scene, the stationary scene appears to move
bottom up processing
info from sensory receptors is combined to make more complex and recognizable patterns
monocular vision cues (6)
- relative size
- familiar size
- linear perspective
- texture gradient
- position relevant to horizon
binocular vison cues (2)
- retinal disparity
the relative movements of objects at various distances from the observer
changes shape to let in more/less light
small opening in eye which lets in light waves
What are the four possible outcomes in signal detection theory?
- false alarm
- correct rejection
the process by which sensory organs translate the physical properties of stimuli into neural impulses
What are on-center, off-surround cells and how do they contribute to finding lines?
- on-center off-surround cells selectively fire when light is in the center of their receptive cells.
- When a bank of on-center off-surround cells are firing together, this is indicates a line
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