Psychology: Chapter 4 (Sensation and perception) part 2

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Psychology: Chapter 4 (Sensation and perception) part 2
2013-10-30 14:02:08
Chapter Perception

chapter 4 perception
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  1. auditory perception
    determine words, identify speaker, localize sound in space
  2. visual perception
    • differentiate objects
    • determine position motion shape, texture
    • make contact with long term memory
  3. templatic hypothesis
    • we store images of encountered objects
    • we can recognize objects based on their familiarity
  4. problems with templatic hypothesis
    • we can recognize things we've never seen before
    • we can recognize objects from new angles
    • we can recognize objects when features are missing
  5. segmentation
    • achieved by:
    • edge detection
    • determining figure group
    • grouping
  6. what is the sensory input and perceptual output of vision?
    • sensory input: 2-D array of color and luminance values
    • perceptual output: 3-D objects
  7. what is sensory input and perceptual output of audition?
    • sensory input: sequence of air pressure values
    • perceptual output: words
  8. How do we identify edges?
    enhance contrast (ex. mach bands)
  9. lateral inhibition
    adjacent neurons inhibit each other to enhance contrast
  10. how does the herman grid exhibit lateral inhibition?
    black squares make the white pathways more white, so corners appear darker
  11. how do we find lines in segmentation?
    • each neuron responds to a point in the visual field
    • When a bank of on-center, off-surround cells are jointly firing, this indicates a line
  12. figure ground
    determining what is object and what is environment
  13. gestalt principles
    • heuristics for organizing visual objects
    • similarity
    • proximity
    • good continuation
    • closure
    • simplicity
  14. binocular disparity
    distance between the eyes causes the visual scene to appear slightly differently on the two retinas
  15. texture density gradient
    • less density in same images = indicates closer proximity
    • more density =distance
  16. how does light effect our visual perception?
    location and effects of light source give us depth cues
  17. occulsion
    we can tell about an object's relative position based on the objects in front of and behind that object
  18. 4 cues to object location
    • binocular disparity
    • light source-depth cues
    • occlusion
    • texture density gradient
  19. normalization
    disregarding irrelevant surface materials in order to make contact w. long term memory
  20. color constancy
    • be able to understand that colors remain the same even in different lightings 
    • example of normalization
  21. top down processing in visual perception
    we formulate a hypothesis about the identity of a stimulus, select and examine relevant aspects of the stimulus to check
  22. convergence
    brain uses how much eyes turn to view nearby objects to determine depth perception
  23. ames boxes
    rooms which play with linear perspective and distance clues
  24. ponzo illusion
    when two lines begin to form a triangle and there are two lines in between those other lines, the two lines inbetween appear to be different in size
  25. motion after effects
    if you stare at a moving image and then look at a stationary scene, the stationary scene appears to move
  26. bottom up processing
    info from sensory receptors is combined to make more complex and recognizable patterns
  27. monocular vision cues (6)
    • occlusion
    • relative size
    • familiar size
    • linear perspective
    • texture gradient 
    • position relevant to horizon
  28. binocular vison cues (2)
    • retinal disparity
    • convergence
  29. motion parallax
    the relative movements of objects at various distances from the observer
  30. iris
    changes shape to let in more/less light
  31. pupil
    small opening in eye which lets in light waves
  32. What are the four possible outcomes in signal detection theory?
    • hit
    • miss
    • false alarm
    • correct rejection
  33. sensory coding
    the process by which sensory organs translate the physical properties of stimuli into neural impulses
  34. What are on-center, off-surround cells and how do they contribute to finding lines?
    • on-center off-surround cells selectively fire when light is in the center of their receptive cells. 
    • When a bank of on-center off-surround cells are firing together, this is indicates a line