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What proportion of Americans are currently overweight? Obese
What does body mass index measure? What factors are not taken into account by this measure?
- it measures your weight un relation to your weight(relates w/total body fat)
- muscle weight is not taken into account body composition
What methods are used to evaluate body composition?
immersion, special type of x ray, caliper testing electric currents
What are some of the health effects of overweight and obesity?
high blood pressure, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, heart disease, stroke, lungs, gullbladder disease
Why is it difficult to separate the effects of genetics from the effects of environment when investigating the causes of overweight?
because it comes to the amount of resources
Describe the differences between males and females in weight gain and weight distribution at different phases of life.
during puberty girls go through gaining body fat, where boys gain muscle
What is meant by obesogenic environment, and what are some components of the current dietary landscape in the United States that can be described by this term?
- obesogenic: chances of becoming obese are highly influenced by our environmenr
- fast food restaurants, cost and convience buffet syle dinig
How does television viewing influence obesity patterns?
causes weight gain because of lack of activity
Explain the relationship of weight gain and weight loss to stress.
releases cortisol (raises appetite) or adrenaline (lowers appetite)
What components are used to determine daily energy requirements?
- thermic effect of food: energy required to process the food you eat
- BMR: rate at which the body uses energy to perform daily functions
- physical activity
Why does a higher fat intake result in a higher caloric intake?
because it take less thermal effect to process the food resulting in more calories to store as fat
Describe how weight-management organizations help people lose weight.
they ofer support,education, diet advice excercise counseling
What are the uses of very-low-calorie diets?
when there are health risk involved for obese patients
What types of prescription medications are used for weight loss?
- Sibutramine:appetite suppressant
- Orilistat:blocks absorbtion of fat
What are some strategies for weight loss that individuals can use?
balanced diet, 150 minute of excercise, peer support, set realistic goals, self supervision,cognitive restructuring
What are some strategies for weight loss that socity can use?
Promote healthy foods, support active lifestyles through community planning, encourages insurances to cover obesity prevention programs, and suport consumer awareness
Explain the difference between skill-related fitness and health-related fitness. What are the components of health-related fitness?
- sill related: the ability to perform specific skills associated with leisure activites or sport
- health related: ability to perform daily living activities with vigor
- cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskelatal and body comp.
What are the best explanations for the positive effects of exercise on psychological functioning?
influence mood, decrease depression and anxirty, relieve stressimproved self esteem and sleep
Describe the 2007 ACSM/AHA physical activity recommendations for adults.
- moderate activties for a total od 150 min a weel
- vigorius for 75 minutes aweeek
What are the four dimensions you need to take into account when designing an exercise session? How are they interrelated?
Explain how to calculate your target heart rate zone.
- take your resting heart rate by x 15x4
- subtracts your age from 220 fpr mhr
- thr =60-80%(MHR-RHR)+RHr
List some of the benefits of muscular fitness.
increased lean body mass, increased bone mineral density, improved glucose metaboliam and insulin stimulation,improved posture and reduce back pain
What is the difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance? How do you train for each of them
muscular strength how much u can lift in a single rep and endurance how much you can lift over a period of timefor strength excercise at a higher resistance for short duration for endurance lower intensity, longer duration
What is muscular power and how can it be developed? What is core-strength training?
- muscular power:the amount of work that can be performed in a given ti,e andcan train by performign any excercise faster
- core strength: conditions the body from the neck to the lower back
Describe some of the disadvantages and dangers of performance-enhancing drugs and dietary supplements used by athletes.
diarheas, dehydration, masculatio/feminization, high blood pressure body haor growth
Describe the differences among the three stretching techniques discussed in the chapter.
- passive: partner applies pressure to your body
- static stretching:strectch until you feel tightness and hold for some time
- ballistic stretching: muscle is stretched in a series of bouncing movements
Describe several ways to increase the amount of physical activity in one’s life and to turn light activity into moderate activity.
take the stairs, increase walking pacem count steps, excercse gaming,
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