Anatomy ch. 17

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geoerguera
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243265
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Anatomy ch. 17
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2013-10-28 00:25:06
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anatomy
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Exam 2 chapter 17, The senses
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  1. Based on the modality of stimulus, what receptor type detects specific molecules (e.g. pH) ?
    Chemoreceptors
  2. Based on the modality of stimulus, what receptor type detects changes in temperature?
    Thermoreceptors
  3. Based on the modality of stimulus, what receptor type detects light?
    Photoreceptors
  4. Based on the modality of stimulus, what receptor type detects physical changes (e.g. compression or stretch) of its plasma membrane?
    Mechanoreceptors
  5. Name the 3 classes of mechanoreceptor associated with the following stimuli.

    Touch/pressure
    Pressure
    Limb position
    • Touch/pressure: tactile receptors
    • pressure: baroreceptors
    • limb position: proprioceptors
  6. based on the modality of stimulus, what receptor type detects chemicals from damaged cells (interpreted as pain)?
    nociceptors
  7. What type of pain involves the perception of pain in an amputated or excised part of the body ?
    Phantom pain
  8. what is the explanation for phantom pain?
    Nerve bodies of the sensory neurons from that limb remains alive and propagate impulses to the CNS.
  9. What type of pain occurs when pain from viscera is experienced originating iin dermatomes within the kin rather than in the viscera itself ?
    Referred pain
  10. What is the explanation for referred pain?
    Neuron from the same spinal segment innervate both the damaged organ and the cutaneous region where pain is felt.
  11. What is the technical term for the sense of taste?
    gustation
  12. what cranial nerves carry sensations of taste to the brain?
    • .Facial (7)
    • .glossopharyngeal (9)
  13. what is the technical term for the sense of smell?
    olfaction
  14. what cranial nerve carries impulses from olfactory receptors to the brain?
    Olfactory (1)
  15. what stratified squamous epithelial tissue layer forms a lining over the eye (other than the cornea) and the inside of the eyelids and helps to lubricate the eye?
    Conjuctiva
  16. What gland, located superolateral to the eye, produces tears?
    lacrimal gland
  17. what openings drain tears from the eye into small canals leading medially?
    lacrimal puncta
  18. what canal drains tears into the nose?
    nasolacrimal duct/ canal
  19. the eye consists of 3 layers or tunics. Name them.
    • Superficial: fibrous tunic
    • middle: vascular tunic
    • deep: neural tunic
  20. what is the avascular, transparent anterior portion of the fibrous tunic?
    cornea
  21. what is the technical term for the white of the eye (dense fibrous connective tissue)?
    sclera
  22. what region of the vascular tunic is found in the posterior aspect of the eye and houses a vast network of capillaries to supply the retina?
    choroid
  23. what is the thickened portion of the vascular tunic near the lens that contains a muscular ring and secretes aqueous humor?
    ciliary body
  24. what portion of the vascular tunic, the most anterior, is pigmented adjustable ring that determines the amount of light passing into the eye?
    iris
  25. what do we call the hole in this muscular ring (iris)?
    pupil
  26. what layer of the eye, also referred to as the neural tunic, contains photoreceptors?
    retina
  27. what is the technical term of the posterior portion of the eye where neurons of the optic nerve from around structure often referred to as the blinds spot because of its lack of photoreceptors?
    optic disc
  28. what round, pigmented area, containing a high density of cones (no rods), is located lateral to the blind spot on the posterior wall of the eye?
    macula lutea
  29. what location within (macula lutea) the area provides our sharpest vision?
    fovea centralis
  30. what strong, deformable and elastic, transparent, bi-convex disc is located posterior to the iris?
    lens
  31. what structures attach the lens (via the lens capsule) to the muscles that change its shape?
    suspensory ligaments
  32. what are the names of the muscles responsible for changing the shape of the lens?
    ciliary muscles
  33. Describe the status of the ciliary muscles and lens when viewing things up close and at a distance.
    • close: ciliary muscles contracted, lens bi-convex
    • .fattigue 

    Distance: ciliary muscles relaxed, lens flat
  34. Name the 2 spaces in the eye and the material that fills each.
    posterior cavity- vitreous humor/body 

    anterior cavity- aqueous humor
  35. what is the name of the structure, found anterior to the pitutitary, formed by the convergence of some of the tracts of the optic nerve?
    Optic chiasm
  36. What are the 3 anatomical regions of the ear?
    external , middle, internal
  37. what do we call the skin covered flap of elastic cartilage that forms the projecting portion of the external ear?
    Pinna
  38. what is the technical term for the funnel- shaped epithelial tissue sheet that separates the external auditory canal from the middle ear cavity?
    tympanum
  39. what structure connects the middle ear cavity with the nasopharynx, allowing use to equalize the pressure of the middle ear with the external pressure?
    auditory tube
  40. List the auditory ossicles from lateral to medial ?
    malleus, incus, stapes
  41. what structures are the malleus and stapes attached to ?
    malleus- tympanum 

    stapes- oval window
  42. what do we call the bony space holding the inner ear, and the fluid filled tubes that sit in them?
    Bony labyrinth 

    Membranous labyrinth
  43. What is the name of the snail shaped portion of the inner ear that is responsible for hearing?
    cochlea
  44. what do we call the half circle shaped structures of the ear responsible for rotational equilibrium?
    semicircular canals
  45. what do we call the middle portion of the inner ear responsible for gravitational equilibrium?
    vestibule

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