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buying your way out of purgatory
a. Abuses in the church
wealth and power had corrupted parts of the Catholic Church (simony plurality). Many popes used their positions to further the wealth and power of their families and often acted as secular kings - fighting wars and interfering with other countries (Borgia and Medici Popes)
b. Influence of Humanism - Christian Humanists
renaissance intellectuals who read original Greek, latin and Hebrew books of early christian religion in conflict with church authorities who cling to medival translations. Humanists preached direct contract with god by the individual and pressured the Catholic church to reform abuse, thomas more (desiderium Erasmus)
c. Revolt against the Sacramental system
reformers said the people should read and interpret the bible for themselves, solas scriptorium - the bible alone.
d. Spirit of the Age -
The renaissance had created an educated secular middle class that rejected medieval religious ideas.
e. National Leaders
National Leaders resented the power of the Roman churches
Pope Leo X
- during his reign that Martin Luther felt forced to react to certain chuch excesses - in particular, excesses for which Leo himself was responsible.
- put the church in debt
Martin Luther -
- an Augustinian monk, begins the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his 95 Theses for church Reform to the door of Wittenburg Cathedral,
- Luther believed that each person had to read the bible ("Priesthood of all Believers"). He was enraged by the indulgences so he wrote the 95 theses and posted them on the church door in wittenberg.
- 1. Out lord and Master jesus christ, when he said do penance, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.
- 2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests.
- 3. yet it means not inward repentence only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh
- 4. the pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other that those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the canons
- 5.The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by god and by assenting to gods remission though to be sure he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgement. if his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven
Protestant Ideas - Salvation by faith alone
good works could not help save a person's soul, only strong belief in god.
Bible as the soul authority for the church
refuesed papal authority
Priesthood of all believer -
all people should be involved in religious life, everyone should read and interpret the bible
Reduction in the number of sacraments -
from seven to three - baptism, penance and the lords supper
Catholic church believed in transubstantiation -
the bread and wine served during the mass became the actual body and body of christ
Protestant's consubstantiation -
that the bread and wine symbolized christs body and blood but did not become them
John Calvin -
" If they (government authorities) command anything against Him (God), let it go unesteemed. And here let us not be concerned about all the dignity which the magistrates possess" (the Institution of the Chritian Religion, written in 1536)
The protestant work ethic -
profits earned through hard hones work were a reward from GOD. changing interest for loaning money was not immoral calvinist business people and banking became a major economic force.
people who believed that adults are the only ones that are actually baptized as they have a choice.
1540's the counter reformation
was designed to regain lost territory from protestant churches.
- created and individuals who were deemed to be heretics were put to death for their religious beliefs.
- A religious order, the society of Jesus (jesuits) was organized by ignatius Loyola, a spanish soldier, the jesuits began to distinguish themselves as a teaching order and also worked as catholic missionaries in places where protestantism had gained support.
Thirty years war
- Europe was convulsed in brutal religious wars that destabilized France, the Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire (Germany)
- The Thirty Years war signaled the end of the religious wars in Europe when Catholic France sided with Protestant German princes against the Catholuc Hapsburg emperor for political reasons, A pilicy of Cuis regio eius religio "whose region, his religion was generally introduced that made the religion of the rules of a region the official faith of that region. Religious toleration was rare.