PHRD5025 Biochem Lecture 10 (Bain) - Mechanistic Aspects of Energy Production

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PHRD5025 Biochem Lecture 10 (Bain) - Mechanistic Aspects of Energy Production
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2013-10-28 03:44:44
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Mechanistic Aspects Energy Production
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Mechanistic Aspects of Energy Production
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  1. the first stage of energy extraction for carbohydrates
    glycolysis
  2. define glycolysis
    the oxidation of glucose to form pyruvate, ATP, and NADH
  3. fates of glucose in higher animal and plant cells (3)
    • 1) glycogen (storage as starch & sucrose)
    • 2) pyruvate (oxidation via glycolysis)
    • 3) ribose 5-phosphate (oxidation via pentose phosphate pathway)
  4. 3 types of chemical transformation
    • 1) degradation & oxidation of glucose carbon skeleton to yield pyruvate
    • 2) phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (high energy production)
    • 3) transfer of hydride ion (:H-) to NAD to yield NADH
  5. glycolysis net ATP & NADH
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
  6. fates of glucose under anaerobic conditions (2)
    • 1) glucose -> 2 pyruvate -> 2 EtOH + 2CO2
    • 2) glucose -> 2 pyruvate -> 2 lactate
  7. what lactose intolerance is due to
    disappearance of lactase activity from intestinal epithelial cells -> can't be absorbed/digested, converted into toxic products by bacteria
  8. name 3 important regulatory enzymes in glycolysis
    • 1) hexokinase (glucose -> G6P)
    • 2) PFK1 (F6P -> F1,6BP)
    • 3) pyruvate kinase (PEP -> pyruvate)
  9. predominant hexokinase in liver
    • glucokinase
    • OR
    • hexokinase IV
  10. hexokinase in skeletal muscle
    hexokinase I
  11. why is the affinity for glucose 100x higher in muscle than liver?
    muscle needs a constant supply, while liver acts as buffer releasing its glucose only when needed
  12. The phosphorylation of ADP → ATP has a what type of G?
    positive
  13. what inhibits PFK-1? (2)
    • 1) ATP
    • 2) citrate
  14. what activates PFK-1? (3)
    • 1) AMP
    • 2) ADP
    • 3) F2,6BP
  15. phosphorylated pyruvate kinase is (more/less) active
    LESS ACTIVE
  16. what inhibits pyruvate kinase? (4)
    • 1) ATP
    • 2) acetyl-CoA
    • 3) alanine
    • 4) long-chain FAs
  17. how pyruvate kinase is inhibited
    ATP phosphorylates it, decreasing its affinity for PEP
  18. what is pyruvate kinase activated by
    F1,6BP
  19. what is the fate of pyruvate during the aerobic phase of catabolism?
    oxidized to H2O & CO2 during cellular respiration
  20. pyruvate provides the ____ for the CAC.
    acetyl groups
  21. The outer membrane is ___________ (permeable or impermeable) whereas
    the inner membrane is ___________ (permeable or impermeable).
    • permeable
    • impermeable
  22. What type of reactions replenish the intermediates that are removed from
    the citric acid cycle?
    anaplerotic reactions
  23. pathways protein can be run through (2)
    • 1) urea cycle
    • 2) CAC
  24. What are the 3 excretory forms of nitrogen?
    • 1) ammonia
    • 2) urea
    • 3) uric acid
  25. net yield of products from the CAC (PER PYRUVATE MOLECULE)
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2


    **per glucose molecule -> 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
  26. Where does most of our ATP come from?
    A combination of the CAC and oxidative phosphorylation.
  27. electron transport and oxphos occur in ____.
    mitochondria
  28. The oxidation of ___________ is associated with NADH production which provides a
    source of electrons for ___________ and ___________.
    • FAs
    • electron transport
    • oxphos
  29. what makes the outer mitochondrial membrane permeable?
    porins
  30. importance of impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane
    allows for the establishment of steep chemical gradients
  31. concentration of H+ is ___ in the inter-membrane space.
    high
  32. concentration of H+ is ___ in the mitochondrial matrix.
    low
  33. the electrons stripped from each NADH drives the synthesis of ___ ATP.
    2.5
  34. the electrons stripped from FADH2 generate ___ ATP.
    1.5
  35. 2 things that drive ATP synthesis in conjunction with ATP synthase
    • 1) pH gradient
    • 2) transmembrane potential
  36. complex in ATP synthase that catalyzes ATP synthesis
    F1
  37. complex in ATP synthase that acts as the proton pore
    F0
  38. What is the total ATP output after the complete oxidation of Glucose?
    30 or 32
  39. How would treating someone with cyanide poisoning by converting Hb to met-­Hb help
    them not die a horrible death?
    The CN-­ would react with the Fe3+ of met-­Hb instead of reacting with the Fe3+ in the heme of cytochrome oxidase complex (which would inhibit electron transfer)
  40. Initially, what condition do most tumors grow in?
    anaerobic
  41. What metabolic pathway/process increases 10-­fold in regions occupied by tumors?
    glycolysis

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