PHRD5025 Biochem Lecture 10 (Bain) - Mechanistic Aspects of Energy Production
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the first stage of energy extraction for carbohydrates
the oxidation of glucose to form pyruvate, ATP, and NADH
fates of glucose in higher animal and plant cells (3)
- 1) glycogen (storage as starch & sucrose)
- 2) pyruvate (oxidation via glycolysis)
- 3) ribose 5-phosphate (oxidation via pentose phosphate pathway)
3 types of chemical transformation
- 1) degradation & oxidation of glucose carbon skeleton to yield pyruvate
- 2) phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (high energy production)
- 3) transfer of hydride ion (:H-) to NAD to yield NADH
glycolysis net ATP & NADH
fates of glucose under anaerobic conditions (2)
- 1) glucose -> 2 pyruvate -> 2 EtOH + 2CO2
- 2) glucose -> 2 pyruvate -> 2 lactate
what lactose intolerance is due to
disappearance of lactase activity from intestinal epithelial cells -> can't be absorbed/digested, converted into toxic products by bacteria
name 3 important regulatory enzymes in glycolysis
- 1) hexokinase (glucose -> G6P)
- 2) PFK1 (F6P -> F1,6BP)
- 3) pyruvate kinase (PEP -> pyruvate)
predominant hexokinase in liver
- hexokinase IV
hexokinase in skeletal muscle
why is the affinity for glucose 100x higher in muscle than liver?
muscle needs a constant supply, while liver acts as buffer releasing its glucose only when needed
The phosphorylation of ADP → ATP has a what type of
what activates PFK-1? (3)
phosphorylated pyruvate kinase is (more/less) active
what inhibits pyruvate kinase? (4)
- 1) ATP
- 2) acetyl-CoA
- 3) alanine
- 4) long-chain FAs
how pyruvate kinase is inhibited
ATP phosphorylates it, decreasing its affinity for PEP
what is pyruvate kinase activated by
what is the fate of pyruvate during the aerobic phase of catabolism?
oxidized to H2O & CO2 during cellular respiration
pyruvate provides the ____ for the CAC.
The outer membrane is ___________ (permeable or impermeable) whereas
the inner membrane is ___________ (permeable or impermeable).
What type of reactions replenish the intermediates that are removed from
the citric acid cycle?
pathways protein can be run through (2)
What are the 3 excretory forms of nitrogen?
- 1) ammonia
- 2) urea
- 3) uric acid
net yield of products from the CAC (PER PYRUVATE MOLECULE)
**per glucose molecule -> 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
Where does most of our ATP come from?
A combination of the CAC and oxidative phosphorylation.
electron transport and oxphos occur in ____.
The oxidation of ___________ is associated with NADH production which provides a
source of electrons for ___________ and ___________.
- electron transport
what makes the outer mitochondrial membrane permeable?
importance of impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane
allows for the establishment of steep chemical gradients
concentration of H+ is ___ in the inter-membrane space.
concentration of H+ is ___ in the mitochondrial matrix.
the electrons stripped from each NADH drives the synthesis of ___ ATP.
the electrons stripped from FADH2 generate ___ ATP.
2 things that drive ATP synthesis in conjunction with ATP synthase
- 1) pH gradient
- 2) transmembrane potential
complex in ATP synthase that catalyzes ATP synthesis
complex in ATP synthase that acts as the proton pore
What is the total ATP output after the complete oxidation of Glucose?
30 or 32
How would treating someone with cyanide poisoning by converting Hb to met-Hb help
them not die a horrible death?
The CN- would react with the Fe3+ of met-Hb instead of reacting with the Fe3+ in the heme of cytochrome oxidase complex (which would inhibit electron transfer)
Initially, what condition do most tumors grow in?
What metabolic pathway/process increases 10-fold in regions occupied by tumors?
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