Immunology part 2
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What are antibodies?
What do antibodies mediated the effect of?
Are immunoglobulins specific for pathogens?
proteins produced by B cells.
B cells and neutralize foreign molecules.
What do the adverse consequences of the immune response?
- hay fever (pollen allergy)
- contact dermatitis
- food allergies
- Auto-immune disorders
- systemic lupus erythematosus
- celiac disease
- mulitple sclerosis
- rheumatoid arthritis
What are allergens?
They are substances that stimulate an allergy or an allergic reaction.
They are environmental antigens.
What does immunology also examine?
what determines between self and non-self?
- self and non-self.
- mhc: major histocompatability complex.
- present in all host cells
- type 1: all host cells
- type 2: white cells.
- Tlr- toll-like receptros
- host cell receptros on white blood cells that recognize microbes.
What are the cells of the immune system?
Monocytes : macrophages and dendritic cells
- Mast cells
- pmns (polymorphonuclear leukocytes):
- Lymphocytes: b and t cells
- T cells: t helper, cytotoxic t, and regulatory t cells
- nk- cells
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
- spleen, lymph nodes, peyer's patches
- mucosal-associated tissues, tonsils, adenoids, and appendix.
What are leukocytes (wbcs)?
What are the types of leukocytes?
cells of the immune system.
- polymorphonuclear leukocytes
- mast cells
What are the major cells of the specific immune system and are divided into three populations?
B lymphocytes (B cells)- make antibodies
T lymphocytess (t cells)- kill tumor cells and virally infected host cells.
Natural killer cells- kill tumor cells and virally infected host cells.
How are the b cells activated?
What are b cells important for?
Do b cells or plasma cells have memory?
What are t cells important for?
What are they important for, 3 things?
- virally infected host cells
- host cells with internal bacteria (obligate intracellular parasites)
- tumor cells
What are the three types of t cells?
- cytotoxic t cells ( cd8+)
- helper t cells (cd4+)
- regulatory t cells
What are cytotoxic t cells?
possess the receptor cd8+ and are also called killer t cells.
- destroy host cells infected with viruses, and cancer cells
- requires direct contact with infected cells
- Exposes intracellular pathogen to the immune system
What are the various t helper cells?
What receptor do t helper cells contain?
What do they do?
th1, 2, 3
receptor called cd4+
regulate the immune response
What does th1 do?
What does th2 do?
What does th3 do?
act on small, phagocytosable, intracelllular pathogens; and stimulates and inflammatory response.
act on large, non-phagocytosable, extracellular helminths, shifts the immune response from cell mediated to humoral immunity.
important in mucosal immunity; inhibits the action of th1 and th2, and anti-inflammatory.
What are regulatory t cells?
what cellular receptors does it have?
what do regulatory t cells do?
regulatory t cells are also known as suppressor t cells or tregs.
- regulate the immune response.
- maintains tolerance to self
- regulates automimmune disease.
What are natural killer cells?
What do they do?
What are they important for?
non-t non-b lymphocytes usually having granular morphology.
- provide protection against viruses and intracellular bacteria
- they kill certain tumor cells
What are mononuclear cells?
What are monocytes?
cells with a single large nucleus.
are precursors to macrophages and dendritic cells.
What are macrophages?
- large phagocytic leukocytes.
- migratory cells:
- can move to the site of an infection.
- are found in all healthy cells.
What do dendritic cells do?
Are dendritic cells derived from monocytes phagocytic cells?
What do dendritic cells do?
play an important role in specific immunity.
they migrate through the blood stream or to lymphatic system and present the antigens to the t cells.
What are granulocytes?
what do the granules contain?
What are granulocytes also called?
are cells with granules inside the cytoplasmic matrix.
antimicrobial substances that kill microbes.
polymorphonuclear leukocytes because the cells have irregular-shaped nuclei.
What are pmns?
What are the three granulocytes that they have?
- Basophils: produce histamine
- Eosinophils: release cationic proteins and have antimicrobial properties; usually bactericidal.
- Neutrophils: are phagocytes.
What are mast cells?
Where are they most abundant?
Where are they dervied from??
What do they play a cruicial role in?
are large cells found in connective tissues throughout the body.
in submucosal tissues and the dermis.
What are complements?
Whatare they three ways that the complement system can be activated?
is named as such because it complements the action of the antibody-mediated immune system.
- classical pathway
- lecitin pathway
- alternative pathway
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