exam week 11

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
243314
Filename:
exam week 11
Updated:
2013-10-28 06:19:22
Tags:
nursing 102
Folders:

Description:
exam week 11 part 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. what physiological conditions are critical for normal bowel function and defecation?
    • Normal GI Tract Function
    • Adequate Capacity
    • Sensory Awareness of distension to the rectum and contents
    • Voluntary Sphincter Control
  2. Describe factors that affect bowel elimination
    • development
    • Diet
    • Activity
    • Psychological Factors
    • Personal Habits
    • Medications
    • Pathological Conditions
    • Pain
  3. what is the impact of Narcotics in fecal elimination
    slows peristalsis and segmental contractions often resulting in constipation
  4. how does antibiotic affect fecal elimination
    may produce diarrhea by disrupting normal bacteria in GI tract
  5. hoe does ASA affect fecal elimination
    • can interfere with formation of protective mucous covering the stomach
    • resulting in gastritis or bleeding
  6. how do NSAIDS affect fecal elimination
    • promote GI tract irritation
    • ranges from epigastric pain to flank hemorrhage
  7. how does Iron affect fecal elimination
    • can discolor stool ( Black)
    • can lead to constipation
  8. how do laxatives affect fecal elimination
    • 3 mechanisms
    • chemical - act to stimulate peristalsis (Dulcolax)
    • mechanical - increase bulk, fiber (Metamucil)
    • Softener- lubricate (mineral oil or ducosates)
  9. what are carthartics
    • stronger than laxative
    • used as colonoscopy prep
    • (GoLytly)
  10. what are the risks of diarrhea
    • rapid passage reduces the time that the large intestines can reabsorb fluid
    • can cause serious electrolyte and fluid losses in the body.
    • Can Happen very Fast In Children and Older Adults
  11. teach about diarrhea
    • drink 8 glasses or water a day/few electrolye replacements
    • eat foods with sodium and potassium
    • increase Soluble Fiber (skinless fruit, potatoes, oatmeal, rice)
    • No alcohol, or caffeine
    • Limit insoluble fiber (cereal, whole wheat)
    • Clean Perineal Area
    • After eat yogurt to reestablish flora into the stomach
  12. What foods migt act as a laxative
    • Bran
    • Prunes
    • Figs
    • Chocolate
    • alcohol
  13. What foods cause constipation
    • Cheese
    • Pasta
    • Eggs
    • Lean Meat
  14. What foods produce Gas
    • Apples
    • Bananas
    • Cauliflower
    • Onions
    • Cabbage
  15. describe Valsalva Maneuver
    • Straining against closed epiglottis
    • this builds up pressure on the large veins in the thorax and interferes with return bood flow to the heart and coronary arteries.
    • When client releases pressure the epiglottis opens and a surge of blood flows to the heart
    • May cause arrythmias
  16. When NOT to give laxative or Carthartic
    • Nausea
    • Cramps
    • Colic
    • Vomitting
    • undiagnosed Abdominal Pian
    • Diarrhea
    • Ask Doctor first risk rupturing bowel
  17. What are causes of constipation
    • insufficient fiber
    • insufficient activity or immobility
    • insufficient fluid intake
    • irregular defecation habits
    • change of dailt routines
    • chronic use of laxatives
    • IBS"
    • Lack of Privacy
    • Pelvic Floor Dysfunction or muscle damage
    • Meds (iron, antihistamine, opioids, antacids) 
    • Ignoring urge (holding it)
  18. how to recognize constipation
    • fewr than 3 BM per week
    • Dry Passage of stool
    • Passage of No Stool
  19. Causses of diarrhea
    • stress/anxiety
    • fluid and electrolyte imbalance
    • tube feedings
    • changes in diet
    • changes in neurological system
    • impaired nerve intervention
    • Parasites
    • Drugs, antibiotics
  20. what are the possible locations of ostomies
    • Cecostomy/Ileostomy
    • Ascending Colostomy
    • Transverse Colostomy
    • Descending Colostomy
    • Sigmoid Colostomy
  21. sigmoid colostomy
    • normal formed consistency and freq
    • discharge can be regulated
    • does not need appliance
    • most common permenant  ostomy
  22. Descending colostomy
    • produces increasingly formed fecal drainage
    • Some people have control
  23. Transverse colostomy
    • malodorous
    • mushy drainage some liquid has been reabsorbed
    • Usually no Control Must Wear Bag
  24. Ascending Colostomy
    • liquid drainage cannot be regulated
    • digestive enzymes are present
    • Odor has to be controlled
  25. Cecostomy/Ileostomy
    • produces liquid drainage
    • drainage is constant
    • odor is minimal no bacteria present
  26. what is normal hourly urine output
    • 60mL
    • 30mL Call Doctor
  27. liefespan for fetus
  28. Kidney begin to excrete between 11-12th seek
    ability to concentrate urine is minimal
  29. life Span development/changes in urinary elimination
    • Ability to concentrate urine is minimal
    • Urine is slightly yellow
    • Voluntary control is absent
  30. life span development /changes children urinary elimination
    • between 18-24 months start to recognize bladder is full
    • between 2 1/2 and 3 years recognize fullness and able to communicate and hold it
    • Full night time control occurs 4-5 daytime 3
  31. lifespan urinary elimination
    Adults
    • Kidney reach maximum size between 35-40
    • after 50 kidey begins to diminish in size and function
  32. lifespan development/changes
    urinary elimination
    Older Adults
    • estimated 30% of Nephrons lost by 80
    • Renal blood flow decreases because vascular changes and decreased cardiac output
    • ability to concentrate urine decreases
    • bladder muscle control decreases
  33. what are signs and symptoms of UTI?
    • urine becomes dark and cloudy
    • u/o decreases
    • GFR decreases
    • Facial and periorbital edema occurs
    • Malaise
    • Fever
    • headache
    • anorexia
    • nausea
  34. why are UTI more common in females than males
    Urethra is shorter, and is in close proximity to the vagina and the anus
  35. what is residual urine
    urine left in the bladder after you go to the bathroom
  36. what are the health risks associated with residual urine
    • urinary stasis
    • UTI
    • infection into the Kidneys and the body
  37. what tests are used to evaluate Renal Function
    • BUN
    • Creatinine Clearance (24 hr)
  38. what is the relationship between BP and Renal Function?
    • Kidney Function is down, BP is up
    • when BP/blood flow in afferent arterioles decreases for any reason the Renin Angiotension Aldsterone is stimulated.
    • Angiosterone increases vasoconstriction and stimulates aldosterone
  39. What are some factors that affect urinary elimination
    • developmental factors
    • muscle tone
    • medications
    • Fluid I/O
    • enlarged prostate
  40. straight catheter
    • straight
    • no balloon
    • used to check for residual urine or client use at home every 4-6
  41. irrigation catheter
    • stays in bladder (indwelling)
    • 3 lumen 1 drain urine, 2fill balloon, 3 irrigation
  42. coude' catheter
    • rigid, with curve on the end
    • used mostly for males that have had prostate surgery
  43. retention catheter
    • foley, most common
    • double lumen, 1 drain 2 balloon
    • indwelling
  44. suprapubic catheter
    surgically inserted above pubic bone
  45. what supplies are needed for indwelling catheter
    • gt catheter and kit
    • sterile gloves
    • drape under butt, and drape goes over thighs
    • antiseptic solution
    • cotton balls
    • lubrication
    • forceps/tweezers
    • syringe filled with sterile water
    • collection bag and tubing
  46. what are different types of enemas?
    • cleansing
    • carminative
    • retention
    • return flow
  47. cleansing enema
    • hypertonic - pulls fluid from body(fleet-small bottle)
    • hypotonic -body absorbs fluid (tap water-big bag)
    • istonic-equal, no fluid movement
  48. carminative
    used to expel gas
  49. retention enema
    • introduces oil or medication into rectum and sigmoid colon
    • stays in 1-3 hours softens feces
  50. Return flow enema
    alterate between 100-200mL, stimulates peristalsis  eliminates gas
  51. urinary diversions
    • ureterostomy
    • nephrostomy
    • veciostomy
    • ileal conduit

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview