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what is diabetes mellitus caused by?
deficiency in the secretion or action of insulin
what is type 1 diabetes caused by?
destruction of pancreatic
cells that make insulin
How does diabetic acidosis occur?
- Ketone body formation produces carboxylic acids which get ionized. These protons
- overwhelm the blood buffering system, leading to a decrease in pH
what does a high carb/low fat diet do to the body?
- high carbs stimulate insulin release spikes, stimulating TG storage
- eventual insulin drop will also stimulate appetite
hypothesis behind Atkins/carb restriction diets
attenuate glucose induced insulin response -> don't activate FA synthesis/storage
what pathway is largely inactive if one is on the Atkins diet?
- intermediates are used for gluconeogenesis in the absence of ingested sugars
where does the massive increase in acetyl-CoA come from in a person on the Atkins diet?
- ingested lipids activate b-oxidation
- also, low insulin leads to stored TG mobilization
what happens to all the acetyl-CoA in a person on the Atkins diet?
liver produces ketone bodies for primary energy source
what is weight loss thought to be due to in the Atkins diet? (3)
- 1) b-oxidation of fat stores due to achieving ongoing ketogenic state
- 2) water loss due to less H bonding potential in fats versus sugars
- 3) simply eating less
5 food groups of the new 2005 food pyramid
- 1) grains
- 2) vegetables
- 3) fruits
- 4) low/no fat milk
- 5) meat/beans