PHRD5025 Biochem Lecture 12 (Bain) - Metabolic Regulation – Mechanisms and Applications II

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PHRD5025 Biochem Lecture 12 (Bain) - Metabolic Regulation – Mechanisms and Applications II
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2013-10-28 06:31:03
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Metabolic Regulation – Mechanisms Applications
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Metabolic Regulation – Mechanisms and Applications
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  1. what is diabetes mellitus caused by?
    deficiency in the secretion or action of insulin
  2. what is type 1 diabetes caused by?
    destruction of pancreatic  cells that make insulin
  3. How does diabetic acidosis occur?
    • Ketone body formation produces carboxylic acids which get ionized. These protons
    • overwhelm the blood buffering system, leading to a decrease in pH
  4. what does a high carb/low fat diet do to the body?
    • high carbs stimulate insulin release spikes, stimulating TG storage
    • eventual insulin drop will also stimulate appetite
  5. hypothesis behind Atkins/carb restriction diets
    attenuate glucose induced insulin response -> don't activate FA synthesis/storage
  6. what pathway is largely inactive if one is on the Atkins diet?
    • CAC
    • intermediates are used for gluconeogenesis in the absence of ingested sugars
  7. where does the massive increase in acetyl-CoA come from in a person on the Atkins diet?
    • ingested lipids activate b-oxidation
    • also, low insulin leads to stored TG mobilization
  8. what happens to all the acetyl-CoA in a person on the Atkins diet?
    liver produces ketone bodies for primary energy source
  9. what is weight loss thought to be due to in the Atkins diet? (3)
    • 1) b-oxidation of fat stores due to achieving ongoing ketogenic state
    • 2) water loss due to less H bonding potential in fats versus sugars
    • 3) simply eating less
  10. 5 food groups of the new 2005 food pyramid
    • 1) grains
    • 2) vegetables
    • 3) fruits
    • 4) low/no fat milk
    • 5) meat/beans

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