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The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and serves in ___ & ___ functions. It regulates functions such as the release of ____, ____, ____, & ___.
The hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the ______.
- Hormones, circadian rhythms, BP, emotions
The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the _____. There are two lobes, the ___ and ___.
- Pituitary stalk
The Posterior pituitary pathway: Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (largest cells) extend down the ____ into the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and releases neurohormones into the ______. The two neurohormones that are released are ___ and ____.
- pituitary stalk
Oxytocin is a neurohormone that is released during ___ and ___.
Vassopressin regulates ______.
- Lactation (stimulates release of milk from mammary gland)
Salt concentrations and blood volume
*In the posterior pathway of the pituitary gland
The Anterior Lobe of the pituitary gland contains cells that secrete hormones to __________.
Control the release of hormones from other glands (e.g. thyroid)
The Anterior Pituitary pathway: The parvocellular neurosecretory cells control the anterior lobe. These cells release hormones into the hypothalamo-pituitary portal system (a network of blood vessels that extend down the stalk into the anterior lobe), which releases hormones. Once the neurohormones are in the anterior lobe, they bind on receptors and there is an increase or decrease of neurohormones, which then puts ___ on organs of the body.
The ANS is a division of the ___ nervous system. It regulates ___ and acts in a reflexive/involuntary manner. It is controlled by the ____ and part of the ___. The two divisions of the ANS are ____ and ____. Both divisions contain these kinds of fibers.
- viscera (heart, stomach, intestines)
- Pre-ganglionic that synapse onto post-ganglionic neurons that go on to innervate muscles/glands
The somatic motor system is a ___-neuron system. The neuron is found within the ____. This neuron innervates ___ muscle.
The Autonomic Nervous system is a ___-neuron system. The neuron is found in the ___. Pre-ganglionic neurons synapse onto ___-ganglionic neurons in the ___. These neurons innervate ___ & ___ muscle, and ___ cells.
- One (1 neuron synapses directly onto muscle)
- Ventral root (in SC or brainstem)
- Two (Pre- and post-ganglionic neurons as part of the sympathetic & parasympathetic systems)
- CNS (SC or medulla)
- smooth, cardiac, gland
The sympathetic division of the ANS is the ___ or ___ system. It increases ____, ___, and ___. It decreases ___ and ___ functions.
- fight or flight
- heart rate, BP, energy
- digestive, reproductive
- *Uses energy
The preganglionic neurons originate in the SC and the __ and __ portions of the SC. The axons of preganglionic neurons project/exit through the ____ and synapse on post-ganglionic neurons in the ______ or in ___ then go out to innervate _____.
Explain the sympathetic division.
Explain the sympathetic pathways.
- Thoracic, lumbar
- ventral horn
- sympathetic chain, ganglia
- muscles and glands
Pre-ganglionic neurons > sympathetic chain > post-ganglionic neurons > target organs
Pre-ganglionic neuron releases ACh at the synapse with post-ganglionic, post-ganglionic releases NE at synapse with muscle/gland
The parasympathetic division of the ANS maintains ___, ____ functions, and ___. More simply, ____ conditions.
- heart rate, respiratory, digestion
- *Saves energy
In the parasympathetic division:
Pre-ganglionic neurons originate in the ___ and ___ region of the SC.
Explain the pathway of the parasympathetic division.
Axons or pre-ganglion neurons extend to synapse on post-ganglionic neurons in ____ outside of the target organ. Post-ganglionic neurons travel to organs and innervate them.
Pre-ganglionic neurons release ___ at the synapse with post-ganglionic neuron. Post-ganglionic neurons release ___ at the synapse with the target organ.
Pre-ganglionic neurons > post-ganglionic neurons > target organ
Pre-ganglionic NTs in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS release ___, which binds to nicotinic receptors and opens them, creating a ____.
Post-ganglionic NTs in the parasympathetic division (ACh) binds to ___ receptors and activates G-protein, which opens K+ channels, creating a ____.
Post ganglionic NTs in the sympathetic division (NE) binds to Beta-Adrenergic receptors and activates G-protein and opens ion channels, creating ____.
- hyperpolarization (slow heart rate)
Depolarization (increase heart rate, BP)
Collections of neurons that project onto large areas of the brain and SC are called _____.
Neurons of this system modulate functions of other neurons, making them more or less excitable. Can affect ___, ___, or ___.
- Diffuse modulatory systems
- Mood, motor, behaviors
NTs of the diffuse modulatory system diffuse to many post-synaptic neurons and modulate their function. Instead of these NTs being released into the synaptic cleft, they are released into ______.
Extracellular fluid (to diffuse to many other neurons)