Anthropology Test 2.txt

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sabbyfish
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Anthropology Test 2.txt
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2013-10-28 17:29:45
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Anthropology
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Test 2
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  1. Oral Tradition
    • Most of our written text is informed by oral traditions
    • characteristics of oral narrative: long and complex, not always told all at once, unconscious alterations as passed down, different versions of same story
    • once written down: become more stable
  2. stories of the supernatural
    • folktale
    • legend
    • myth
  3. folktale
    • characteristics: ritual cannibalism, a divination instrument, resurrection from the dead, underlying moral, nothing sacred/holy
    • meant to entertain
    • fiction
    • independent of time and space
    • ex: snow white
  4. legend
    • characteristics: based on real people, places, or events and considered factual
    • include few if any super natural elements, can be sacred or secular
    • generally human characters
    • take place in present or recent past
    • ex: Atlantis
  5. Urban legend
    story about people and events that never occurred but are presented as real
  6. Myths
    • sacred stories: basis for religious beliefs
    • prescribe rules of proper conduct
    • existence and activity of gods and spirits
    • how to distinguish even from good
    • believed to be relevant in modern life
    • believed to be true by those who tell them
    • in our modern society myths are usually seen as fake but in an anthropological context this is not the case
  7. Three types of Myths
    common themes
    • origin myth
    • apocalyptic myth
    • trickster myth
    • hero myth
    • common elements and themes in human societies because of diffusion or based on a shared nature of human cognition and psychology
  8. origin myths
    • address most basic questions of identity: who are we and what are we?
    • most sacred
    • lay groundwork for related mythology
    • Three types: out of chaos, darkness, or void, birth metaphor, and emergence/our of the earth
  9. apocalyptic myths
    • catastrophic destruction of the world
    • the flood: floods were commonly experienced by ancient peoples.  or because of dreaming while needing to urinate
  10. trickster myths
    • provide an explanation of why things are they way they are or how people should/shouldn't behave
    • gluttons, easily bored, dishonest, impulsive
    • responsible for bringing important elements into the world (like the sun)
    • ex: loki, spider, coyote
    • often transformers
  11. hero myths
    • 3 phases of journey: 
    • departure
    • initiation: training, learn to use supernatural tools from a master
    • return: accomplish a task
    • ex: the Buddha
  12. monomyth
    • a monomyth: all follow same basic story line
    • ex: hero myths
    • 9 key elements:
    • hero
    • remote childhood
    • call to adventure
    • physical transportation out of previous life
    • intro of helper
    • given amulet
    • enters land of enchantment
    • companions
    • faces challenges
    • uses magic to accomplish goals
    • ex: star wars, wizard of ox, happy potter
  13. Middle America and the Caribbean: general overview of region
    • climate: humid equatorial
    • land cover and coral reefs: rainforest, wooded grassland
    • population density: 77 ppl/km
    • religion: roman catholic
  14. Olmec
    • first mesoamerican civilizations
    • territory: tropical lowlands of mexico in Veracruz and Tabasco
    • San Lorenzo: first features appeared here, first Olmec center, abandoned when La Venta rose to prominence
    • La Venta: next prominent center after San Lorenzo, great pyramid
    • Organization: centralized society, rulers, elite that controlled resources
    • feathered serpent: Quetzalcoatl, deity
    • institution of kingship
  15. classical maya
    • territory: southern Mexico and Northern central america
    • description: 
    • Tikal: maya site, 9 pyramid complexes, 
    • collapse: many theories about the collapse, drought is a likely one
    • scientific advancements: mathematics and astronomy, calendar, irrigation systems
    • Kukuklan: feathered serpent
    • Popol Vuh: "book of the people" known for its creation myth and story of the hero twins
    • hero twins: Hunahpu and Ixbalangue came from the seed of their dead father, grew up to avenge their father and finally defeated the lords of the underworld.  the twins finally transform into the sun and moon
    • distinctive ritual practices:
    • ball game: rubber balls
    • auto-sacrifice: could happen anytime just as a religious practice
    • bloodletting: sacrifice blood
    • ritual enemas: alcohol
  16. Teotihuacan
    • highland culture
    • in basic of mexico
    • mesoamerican pyramids
  17. Toltecs
    • Highland culture
    • Tula
    • Atlantean figures: represent toltec warriors
  18. Aztecs
    • Highland culture
    • central mexico
    • Aztec pyramids
  19. The Boruca
    • Costa Rica
    • most live on a reservation now, 2000 people
    • chiefdoms
    • subsistence: pigs, chickens, farming on steep hills, sell crafts
    • division of labor: egalitarian, but still women weave, men do physical activity
    • Marriage: often commonlaw but can be in church too, parents decide
    • religion: Roman Catholicism but still hold on to old tales of Sibu
    • fiesta de los diablitos: new years festival, symbolize the triumph of the boruca over the spanish
    • known for masks
  20. Haiti
    • high land: rugged, lots of precipitous slopes, westernmost portion of hispaniola, lush tropical, forest but after colonial period: deforestation changed landscape dramatically
    • 3 migration waves:
    • Taino: Columbus met them on one of his first voyages, they helped him, he later enslaved them and forced them to mine gold, many died because of disease
    • spanish then brought african slaves
    • Spanish became more interested in Mexico and Peru
    • French took over and established Saint-Domingue
    • Had plantations: very brutal conditions for slaves so plantation owners had to replenish slave supplies every 20 years
    • slave revolt: 1500 plantations burned
    • 1793 French abolished slavery
    • 1804 Haiti declared independence from France and were the first to do so
    • Violent and Chaotic regimes: after independence, Haiti had an attempt at democracy, many dictators.  all this played part in it becoming one of the poorest nations in western hemisphere
    • subsistence farming but poor soil due to massive deforestation: estimated 2% of original forest is left
    • very steep hills, farmers would die while tending crops
    • 2003 see a shift to urban centers: people looking for jobs that don't exist = slums
    • 90% of poor majority was of African descent: speak creole, practice voodon
    • 10% wealthy minority of mixed descent speak french, roman catholic
    • most practice voodon just don't admit it
  21. Voodon
    • mix of catholic and west african beliefs
    • but some practices are unique
    • highly influenced by slavery: single creator god called master that is served by many lesser gods
    • considered an honor to be possessed by spirits/priests
    • Taino aspect: draw designs on ground with cornmeal
  22. zombification
    • "the black side" of voodon
    • claims:
    • there are zombies but very few
    • created by poison powder from puffer fish and sedative
    • created due to social constructs: mind over matter, someone who didn't believe in this wouldn't be affected so strongly
    • zombie trance: kept by a priest, controlled by giving more drugs
    • ultimate punishment
  23. South American Overview
    • highlands and mountains run North to South
    • river basins run East to West
    • coastal plains
    • Andes: world's largest mountain system: highest outside of Asia
    • lots of rainforest: amazon is largest watershed in the world
    • this region is half the rainforest of the planet
    • 22 people/km2
    • highest density area is Ecuador with 53
    • religion: roman catholic, Candomble in Brazil, Hindu from low wage workers that came from India after Brazil abolished slavery, indigenous religion in rainforest 
    • Pacific coast: fishing
    • Rivers: ample resources
    • mountains provide security
  24. Moche state
    • Coast of Peru
    • fine pottery and gold metal
    • lord of Sipan: found tomb, had 2 bodyguards on either side and llamas, 3 women that were probably already dead when the lord died, 1 sacrificial footless boy
  25. Inca Empire
    • Whole western stretch of south america
    • Capital of empire: Cuzco
    • built massive roads system: 1 along pacific coastline and one in the mountains to unite their empire
    • machu picchu: built as an estate for first inca emperor, abandoned before the spanish came- spanish never found it because it's in such a high remote part of mountains
    • by the time the spanish showed up, Incan empire had been weakened
    • child sacrifice: children left on top of high mountains, usually die of exposure, usually poor girls
  26. Otavalo
    • Northern Ecuador
    • descendants of Caranqui and Cayambi peoples
    • spanish set up textile factories because Otavalo well known for their textiles: private and government owned
    • became attached to the haciendas by debt servitude
    • small towns with a church and school
    • subsistence farmers: corn, beans, squash, potatoes, quinoa, cherries
    • spanish brought wheat, cattle, pigs, chickens
    • indigenous technologies: hand-held spindle, backstrap loom, use of cotton
    • Technology introduced by the spanish: hand carders, walking spinning wheels, treadle looms, sheep's wool
    • gender equality: children of both genders had same assignments
    • bilateral descent: track both sides of family
    • marriage: not considered an adult until married, no stigma to having a child our of wedlock, virginity not valued, used to have arranged marriages until 1950s but now date, marry between 18-24 years old
    • religious beliefs: Pachamama (mother earth), give offereings to Lechero tree if want to have a baby, rainbow seen as evil omen and can lead to insanity
    • 2 volcanoes: Taita imbabura and Mama cotacachi
  27. Guarani
    • Southern Paraguay, Northern Uruguay
    • spanish wanted to use them as labor so fled into the forest
    • large households, up to 100 people but now more modern, usually just nuclear families
    • subsistence: 
    • gardening: corn, beans, sweet potato
    • foraging: gathering, fishing, and hunting
    • gather forest products for sale: yerba mate, timber, essential oils
    • marriage and family: bilateral descent but limited by social memory, so strict marriage prescriptions, guy moves in with family and see if it works, not really a formal marriage ceremony
    • division of labor: 
    • women: domestic work, maintain crops and harvest
    • men: hunting, fishing, commercial gathering, and clearing plots
    • political organization: kin leaders legitimize their authority through religious knowledge
    • religious beliefs: cosmology (land without evil), apocalyptic myth, multiple deities
  28. Abipon
    • Gran Chaco Region: Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina
    • Jesuit priest Father Martin Dobrizhoffer lived among them and described them as handsome people who were brave fighters and good swimmers
    • nomadic, moved with the seasons, hunted, fished, gathered, sometimes farmed
    • socialization of children: encouraged toward violence
    • the horse: obtained horse from the spanish and abandoned farming for cattle and horse raiding, could fight the spaniards on an equal footing
    • division of labor: men hunted and went to war, women did all the work when men were gone.  women were very dominant, not considered property
    • Bride-price: the transfer of some sort of wealth from the family of the groom to that of the bride (dowry is the opposite)
    • stratified society of nobles, commoners, and slaves
    • "grandfather": supernatural relative, vision quest
    • marriage: didn't marry before the age of 30, singularly chaste
    • Shaman roles: priest, sorcerers, physician, prophets, magicians, soothsayers
  29. Europe
    • 4 major regions: Western uplands/northern uplands, croplands, central uplands, alps
    • 4 regions: iberian peninsula, italian peninsula, balkan peninsula, scandinavia
    • climate: temperate and cold
    • 33 people per square km
    • most people in Mocano, least in Iceland
    • religions: many christian faiths
  30. Birthplace of Western civilization
    • Constantine I was about to go into battle, had vision of Chi Rho in the sky, won battle the next day, converted to christian faith
    • Greeks: democracy, classical orders (partheon in athens), pottery, party
    • Romans: more private parties, austere, imperialism, concrete and hydrolic concrete, colliseum, pantheon in Rone
  31. Sami
    • Arctic area crossing over Norway, Sweden, Finland, and part of Russia
    • hunters and gatherers at first
    • animal skin clothes
    • hunted wild reindeer: then herded them
    • fished: freshwater and seawater
    • after WWII: migrated to cities but some still live in same way
    • partly nomadic people: settlements range in size, some people are nomadic, many have permanent and portable housing, follow herds
    • tents and sawed homes
    • sheep and cattle: commercial farming and ranching
    • fishing: laced boats
    • still hunt and gather
    • reindeer are semi domesticated
    • incorporate traditional and modern technology to herd reindeer: use snowmobiles and dogs
    • division of labor: women have become more tied to the home since introduction of modern household, men do the reindeer herding, both genders cook and attend to children
    • crafts: sown boat, boots, spin pewter
    • men did hard crafts, women soft crafts
    • marriage: monogamous, only limited by their subsistence pattern, low divorce rate
    • religion: converted to lutheran by missionaries, the wind god: given sacrifices of appeasement, special magic drum to interpret symbols
  32. Basques
    • Spain and France
    • unique language: sole representative of its language family, not indo-european language, cant be linked to any other languages
    • Seafarers: Juan Sebasian Elcano finished Magellan's journey around the world and he was Basque
    • After French revolution: start to lose their autonomy
    • Nationalist Movement: opposed french ruler

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