PSC ch. 6

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PSC ch. 6
2013-11-03 01:26:22

how people react to a certain stimulant and their positive or negative effects
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  1. when was the learning theory developed?
    early 20th century in which psychology used non-scientific methods such as introspection and Freudian theories
  2. what did John B. Watson focused on?
    he focused on variables that can be directly observed such as human behavior
  3. What is behaviorism?
    humans and nonhuman animals are born with potential to learn anything
  4. Examples of behaviorism?
    infant gains knowledge from sensory experience


    tabula rasa
  5. What is learning?
    the enduring change in behavior resulting from experience

    learning just like genetics, drives all behaviors
  6. habituation
    a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a nonthreatening stimulus
  7. sensitization
    an increase in behavioral response after exposure to a threatening stimulus
  8. conditioning
    a process that environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become together

    works together to predict what will happen
  9. who performed the classical conditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov
  10. Who performed operant conditioning?
    B.F. Skinner; Skinner box
  11. What is classical conditioning?

    Who created this?
    when an animal learns two type of previously unrelated events go together

    Ivan Pavlov
  12. acquisition
    gradual formation of an association between a conditioned stimulus

    • dog's trained perception
    • bell ring -> food
  13. What were the unconditioned stimulus/response and conditioned stimulus/response during the salivary reflex experiment performed by Ivan Pavlov?
    Unconditioned stimulus = dog food

    • Unconditioned response = dog salivating
    • (occurred b/c prior training)

    • conditioned stimulus = bell ringing
    • (produces salivation after training)

    conditioned response = increase of salivation due to presence of conditioned stimulus
  14. contiguity
    conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus occur together in time

    • most affective w/ only brief delay
    • CS 1st and US 2nd
  15. extinction
    process through which conditioned respond is weakened when the conditioned stimulus to repeated w/out the unconditioned stimulus

    bell - food = salivating
  16. spontaneous recovery
    response in which extinguished response (salivating) reemerges if conditioned stimulant (bell) is presented
  17. caveat
    the recovery will not last if conditioned stimulant  (bell) is not paired with original unconditioned stimulant (food)
  18. stimulus generalization
    occurs when a stimuli similar to (not identical) the conditioned stimulant results in conditioned response

    • ex. 
    • background noise
    • temperature
    • lighting
  19. stimulus discrimination
    a differentiation between 2 similar stimuli when only 1 of them is consistently paired with unconditioned stimulus

    venomous specie vs non-venomous specie
  20. phobia
    acquired fear out of proportion to the real threat of an object or situation

    lack of stimulus discrimination
  21. fear conditioning
    when animals are conditioned to fear neutral objects
  22. counterconditioning
    a process where patients are exposed to fear inducing stimulus while engaged in an enjoyable task
  23. systematic-desensitization
    first relax muscle then imagine feared object; now exposed to feared stimulus while relaxing

    • CS -> CR1 (fear)
    • CS -> CR2 (relaxation)

    repeated exposure to the fear stimulus may be more important than relaxation
  24. What are the effects of addiction to conditioned drug?
    drug paraphernalia can become conditioned stimulus

    environment cues can lead to cravings & withdrawals

    • ex.
    • smell of coffee
  25. What factors are associated w/ conditioning?
    contiguity is not enough~

    certain pairings are more likely to become associated
  26. How is food poisoning a factor of conditioning?
    association between eating and getting sick

    rejection of that food through smell or taste
  27. How is biological preparedness a factor of conditioning?
    biological preparedness is when animals fear potentially dangerous things rather than objects that pose little threats
  28. How is biological preparedness a factor of conditioning?
    biological preparedness is when animals fear potentially dangerous things rather than objects that pose little threats
  29. How is negative association & outgroups a factor of conditioning?
    people are more easily associate negative stimuli w/ outgroup members

    while ingroups are consider as race, friends
  30. Recoria Wagner Model
    an animal learns an expectation that some predictors (potential conditioned stimulant) are better than others
  31. What is the orienting response in Wagner's model?
    the dog will learn to associate being fed w/ use of the new can opener
  32. What is the blocking effect in Wagner's model?
    once the dog know the conditioned stimulus, it prevent the acquisition for new conditioned stimulus

    the dog will not look for other predictors
  33. operant conditioning
    the learning process in which an action's consequences determine the likelihood that the action will be performed in the fture
  34. What kind of experiment did Thorndlike performed?
    • Puzzle Box- law of effect:
    •   satisfying -> reoccur
    •   annoying -> cease
  35. reinforcer
    a stimulus that occurs following a response and increases the chance that response will be repeated
  36. shaping
    reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to get a desired effect

    • ex.
    • initial reward of the dog for similar behavior to rolling such as lying down, then you reinforce behaviors more selectively
  37. reinforcement vs punishment
    reinforcement INCREASES behavior

    punishment DECREASES behavior

    both can be + or -
  38. Positive Reinforcement
    through different stimulus, the probability of a behavior being repeated will increase

    • ex.
    • reward
    • praise
  39. negative reinforcement
    increases behavior through the removal of an unpleasant stimulus

    • taking the bad part of something to reinforce that behavior
    • ex.
    • taking an Advil (NOT that same as punishment)
  40. positive punishment
    decreases behavior's probability through administration of a stimulus

    • ex. 
    • being yelled at
    • getting a speed ticket
  41. negative punishment
    decreases the behavior's probability through removal of a pleasant stimulus

    • ex. 
    • losing privileges (being grounded)
  42. Why should reinforcement be used rather than punishment?
    reinforce good behavior tells children what to do

    • punishment for bad behavior does not tell the child how to improve
    • cause child to fear parent or teacher -> damage of long term relationship
  43. What type of reinforcement or punishment is this example?

    receiving a lollipop after being "good" at a doctor's appointment
    positive reinforcement
  44. What type of reinforcement or punishment is this example?

    Being put in jail after committing a crime (thinking of losing freedom)
    negative punishment
  45. What type of reinforcement or punishment is this example?

    losing weight after working out regularly
    negative reinforcement
  46. What type of reinforcement or punishment is this example?

    Having to mow the lawn after not making your curfew
    positive punishment
  47. Continuous reinforcement
    a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs

    each performed behavior is rewarded
  48. partial reinforcement
    • a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently
    • (more common and less time intensive in what you want them to do)

    can vary on number of responses of passage of time
  49. ratio schedule
    based on number of times behavior occurs

    reward treats to dogs for going out every third time
  50. interval schedule
    • reinforcement is based on unit of time
    •   ex.
    • on a walk, give a dog a treat every 10 minutes
  51. fixed schedule
    reinforcer is given consistently after a specific number of occurrences or after specific amount of time
  52. variable schedule
    reinforcer is given at different rates or at different times

    random and is not predictable when it will happen
  53. Is fixed interval or variable interval more effective?
    • variable interval is more effective
    • the less frequent the reinforcement during training, the greater the resistance to extinction

    however, fixed interval is highly effective for teaching behavior
  54. partial reinforcement extinction effect
    greater persistence of behavior under partial rather than continuous reinforcement
  55. what is the best way to condition a behavior?
    1.continuous reinforcement 

    2. behavior learned

    3. slowly transitioned to partial reinforcement
  56. superstitious behavior
    actions linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence

    links to behavior
  57. How do classical and operant conditioning differ?
    classical conditioning - learn to respond to previously neutral stimulus after it is paired w/ a stimulus that automatically react

    operant conditioning- learning a behavior that is controlled by reinforcement and punishment
  58. What did B.F. Skinner believe about learning?
    learning is a consequence of conditioning
  59. latent learning
    learning that occurs w/out reinforcement; occurs simply by observation
  60. insight learning
    a solution appears after a period of inaction or contemplation of the problem
  61. When does conditioning work best
    if it's consistent with adaptive behaviors
  62. Who is Tolman?
    one of the first to challenge behaviorists' account of learning

    he believes that reinforcement has a greater impact on performance than on learning
  63. latent learning
    learning that is not directly observable (we learn things w/o always showing it)

    •   -competence: what we know
    •   -performance: showing what we know
  64. observational learning
    modification of a behavior after exposure to at least 1 performance of that behavior by another

      -form of latent learning that does not require reinforcement

      powerful adaptive tool that does not require learning by trial and error
  65. What are the short and long term effects of violent media exposure to children?
    • short term: 
    • 20 min of violent video game => less physiological response to images of real violence; less helping behavior; more aggression

    • long term:
    • violent media @ age 8 -> more violent behavior & more criminal behavior @ age 30
  66. What is the result of constant exposure of media violence?
    constant exposure of violence makes children think this is the real world and its socially acceptable to express themselves like that
  67. social learning of fear
    by giving the experimented animal a certain video to watch, they experience by seeing that animal has a negative experience thus they perceive that what the animal perceive is a negative stimulus
  68. cultural transmission
    your culture influences what you learn and what you pass on to other individuals

    • ex. 
    • observing what other is doing and picking up on it
    • copying hunting style through observation
  69. modeling
    the limitation of behavior through observational learning

    -more common in humans than nonhumans
  70. what do we immitate?

    when is modeling effective?
    • those we see as as 
    • attractive
    • high status
    • somewhat similar to ourselves

    modeling is only effective if the observer is physically capable of immitation
  71. When does imitation occur?
    occurs through unconscious thoughts which alters our behavior
  72. vicarious reinforcement
    learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
  73. What are the 3 conditions for aggressive behavior?

    And what happens if an individual view a certain condition as more important?
    • control
    • reward
    • punishment

    >reward: more likely to act aggressively that control

    >punishment: less likely to act aggressive than controls
  74. mirror neurons
    neurons that are activated both when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs the action
  75. Where do we have mirror neurons?
    we have mirror neurons specific to mouth movement

    fire every time you see someone perform a mouth movement

    possible neural basis for language learning
  76. insight learning
    immediate and clear learning that takes place in the absent of over trial and error testing

    • unconscious thought of something
    • presenting w/ problem and random answer comes to you
  77. Which scientist used the insight learning experiment?
    Kohler (1925)
  78. What has researchers identify for the neural basis of learning?
    dopamine underlies reinforcement

    long-term potentiation

    NDMA receptors relation to enhanced learning
  79. What did Olds & Milner studied?
    try to study aversive shocks as punishment

    activated the wrong areas of the brain

    rats found it pleasurable and it served as an intense reinforcer
  80. intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)
    a rat presses a level to induce shocks to specific parts of the brain

    will press lever up to 100 times per minute
  81. What is the result of Olds & Milner's study?
    the rats starved, given the choice between food and ICSS "pleasure centers" choose ICSS 80% of the time

    ICss acts on the same brain regions activated by natural reinforcers (food, water, sex)

    same as addiction due to release of dopamine
  82. dopamine
    feeling of reward results from activation of dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens

    • more desired a stimulus is -> more dopamine is released
    • very hungry-> more dopamine released->food tastes better
  83. What causes a release of dopamine?
    classical conditioning results in a release of dopamine to a secondary reinforcer (conditioned stimulus)

    originally, no dopamine is released in response to the neutral stimulus

    after pairing w/ a unconditioned stimulus (food) dopamine will begin to release in response to just conditioned stimulus (bell)
  84. what happens during operant conditioning?
    • the level of dopamine released sets the value of the reinforcer
    • if you administer a drug that blocks dopamine you can disrupt operant conditioning
  85. liking
    the subjective sense of pleasure the user receives from the behavior

    take drugs for the high, not for the love
  86. wanting
    a craving or desire to perform behavior

    physiological aspects
  87. long term potentiation (LTP)
    is the strengthening of a synaptic connection resulting in post-synaptic neurons that are more easily activated
  88. LTP is related to...?

    LTP is most easily observed...?
    related to learning and memory

    • most easily observed in area's of the brain associated with learning and memory 
    • (hippocampus)
  89. NDMA receptor
    required for LTP

    only opens if a nearby neuron fires at the same time

    allows for learning to occur