Food Preparation Midterm
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. What would you like to do?
What fields are required on www.choosemyplate.gov to get an individualized plan?
age, gender, physical activity level
What fields are optional on choosemyplate.gov to get an individualized plan?
height and weight
Name the major groups in choosemyplate
Grain, vegetables, fruits, protein foods, dairy
What main nutrients do you get from grains?
- #1 source of energy
- provide incomplete proteins
What main nutrients do you get from vegetables?
What main nutrients do you get from fruits?
vitamins, minerals, fiber, and carbohydrates
What main nutrients do you get from protein foods?
- build and repair muscle tissue
- vitamin B
What main nutrients do you get from dairy?
- minerals (calcium, phosphorus)
Name three things you find on food labels
- serving sizes
- nutrition facts
What is unit price?
price per unit/ounce (helps to find the better deals)
What is an advantage and disadvantage to grocery shopping at a big box store?
- Think Target/Walmart
- Disadvantages: time consuming, fewer selection of meat, produce, limited customer service
- Advantages: good prices
What is an advantage and disadvantage to shopping at a grocery store?
- Advantages: quick in and out, store brands, rewards cards, weekly ads, customer service, better selection of meat and produce
- Disadvantages: higher prices
What is an advantage and disadvantage to grocery shopping at a warehouse club?
- think Costco
- Advantages: customers buy bulk, range of services (tires, large appliances, furniture, food)
- Disadvantage: bulk items you can't use before they go bad.
Give 3 tips for wise grocery shopping
- eye level - the sugar stuff for impulse purchases
- lower cost foods, fresh on periphery
- aisles - processed foods
- have a list
- go through the store backwards
What is a loss leader?
Item that a store is willing to sell at a lower price to get you in the store
How many teaspoons in a tablespoons?
3 tsp = 1 Tbs
How do you half an egg?
2 Tbs beaten egg
How many cups in a gallon?
What things would you take into consideration when evaluating a meal?
color, texture, size and shape, flavor, temperature, preparation method, nutritional variety, heavy/light
What is an ingredient that is measured by scooping and leveling?
- granules - scoop into the dry measuring cup and level off
- ex. baking powder, salt, sugar, etc.
Name an ingredient that is measured by spooning and leveling
- POWDERS - spoon into the dry measuring cup and level off (so as to not overpack)
- ex. flour, powdered sugar
What can happen if you don't plan a time schedule for cooking?
May not all be done at the same time/in time
What is the danger zone?
40-140 degrees Fahrenheit
How long can food be left out of the refrigerator?
- Inside your house: 1-2 hours
- Outside: 1 hour
How long is our food supply cart allowed to be out of the refrigerator in lab?
When might you buy packaged foods instead of preparing the food?
faster and easier
Jobs of the manager in lab
- completes lab sheet, timeline and recipes
- major cooking
- completes unit duty
- gets clean linens and puts the used linens in laundry
Job duties of the assistant manager in lab
- get supplies from table
- helps cook
- sweeps floor
- dries and puts away dishes
Job of the aide in lab
- helps cook
- sets table
- takes out trash
- washes dishes and wipes out sinks
Name one use for a metal spatula
- level off dry ingredients in a cup
- frosting cakes
Name one use for a silicone spatula
- scoop out thick liquids (such as batter or honey)
Name a use for a whisk
- blend ingredients together (such as sauces or eggs)
Give a use for the kitchenaid (each attachment)
- paddle - mixing batters and thin dough
- wire whip - mixing liquids
- dough hook - thick dough
Give a use for your food chopper
- dicing onions
- chopping nuts
Name an item you might cut with a paring knife
- peeling vegetables and fruits
- used for precise cutting - cutting citrus membranes
- stemming strawberries
Name an item you might cut with a chef's knife
chopping carrots, potatoes, etc.
What tool do you use to measure honey?
glass liquid measuring cup
What is a common cause of salmonella?
contamination - found primarily in protein foods such as pork, poultry, and eggs.
What is a common cause of e coli?
poor sanitation - linked to eating uncooked meat, raw milk, unpasteurized juices, and contaminated leafy greens
What is a common cause of botulism?
- Canned things - problem occurs when foods contaminated with C. botulinum are not heat processed adequately to kill the spores prior to anaerobic storage for period of time
- Because these bacteria can survive nicely in an oxygen-free environment, some canned products may be subject to toxin production.
How do microwave ovens work?
vibrating and heating the molecules
What is standing time?
Used in food preparation to denote an interval time when the food is left standing - still cooking
Name two microwave safe materials
Name two materials that shouldn't go in the microwave
- one-time use plastic containers
How does convection heat work?
- Transfer of heat through a system by movement of currents of heated air, water, or other liquid.
- ex. oven with fan, boiling water
How does radiation heat work?
- Transfer of energy directly from the source to the food being heated.
- ex. roasting
How does conduction heat work?
- Transfer of heat to a material that is cooking the food.
- ex. frying pan.
What equipment do you need to can meat?
Pressure canner - low acid foods
What precautions do you need to take when canning jam?
Make sure the jar seals and that you use clean jars
List the order in which dishes are properly washed
- Wash the lightest soiled items first
- Usually include glasses, cups, and flatware - washing these items keeps your water fresher and ready to tackle bigger jobs.
- Wash plates, bowls, and serving dishes
- pans and heavily soiled items - reserve until the end of the washing process
Why can sponges be a breeding ground for bacteria?
high moisture, a lot of nutrients - also forget to be cleaned
Why can't you use any oil for frying?
Can't use extra virgin olive oil for frying because it has too low a smoke point.
What is a good fat for biscuits?
- shortening - they can be split apart easily and remain separated
- fats in biscuit - usually solid
- fats in muffins - usually liquid
Can you use any type of margarine for baking?
No, because of the high water content
What are the vegetable categories?
- bulbs - onions
- roots - carrots
- tuber - potatoes
- leaves/stems - broccoli
- fruits - tomatoes
- seeds - legumes and beans
What are the fruit categories?
- berries - strawberries
- citrus - oranges
- drupes - peaches
- melons - muskmelons, cantelopes
- pomes - apples
- tropical and subtropical - pineapple
Why is it important to cook vegetables in little water and/or for short time periods?
- to maintain the nutrient content - retaining water-soluble vitamins
- helps maintain texture and color
Give a couple of guidelines for selecting fresh fruits and vegetables
- color - natural color should be deep and rich
- firm - look for bruising
- shape - check if fully developed
- aroma - should smell like it tastes
- weight - fresh fruits are heavier
Give a guideline for cooking with dairy products
- Avoid high temperatures
- keep the heating period as short as possible
- stir constantly
What could you use as a substitution for oil in a recipe?
applesauce, any fruit/vegetable puree
Which cholesterol is a good one?
How can you reduce bad cholesterol (LDL)
- choose the right fats
- manounsaturated fats in oils
- unsaturated fat - liquid at room temperature
- omega-3 fatty acids - unsaturated fats
- choose a vegetable oil when cooking
- choose leaner meats and low-fat dairy
- limit processed and fried foods
- include fish, nuts, seeds, avocados
Which form of vegatarianism is the most restrictive?
vegan - plan products only
Why do some people choose to be vegetarian?
animal welfare, improve their overall health, environmental concerns, asserting independence through foods, commonality with friends
What is a complete protein?
- a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of people
- ex. meat, fish, poultry, egg, cheese, yogurt, and milk
What is an incomplete protein?
- any protein that lacks one or more essential amino acids in correct proportions
- ex. grains, nuts, beans, seeds, peas, corn
Name an appropriate method for preparing a less tender cut of meat
- long, slow cooking provided by moist heat methods is preferred
- ex. braising
What affects the tenderness of meat?
- how much use that muscle had on the animal
- ex. tenderloin receives almost no exercise
What is butter made of?
saturated fat - 80% made from cream
What is hydrogenation?
Process of adding hydrogen to polyunsaturated fatty acids to change oils into solids
What is pasteurization?
Heat treatment to kill disease-producing microorganisms in milk
What is homogenization?
A technique where heated milk is forced through tiny apertures, pressurized. It forces the fat globules to break into droplets so small that they stay suspended and distributed evenly.
What fat will give you a firmer cookie? Margarine, shortening, or butter?
- Shortening - they will hold their shape and flow less readily
- you can use 1/2 shortening and 1/2 butter for firmer cookies
What would you like to do?
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