Food Preparation Midterm

Card Set Information

Food Preparation Midterm
2013-10-28 19:50:24
food prep

study for midterm 1 in SFL 110
Show Answers:

  1. What fieldsĀ are required on www.choosemyplate.govĀ to get an individualized plan?
    age, gender, physical activity level
  2. What fields are optional on to get an individualized plan?
    height and weight
  3. Name the major groups in choosemyplate
    Grain, vegetables, fruits, protein foods, dairy
  4. What main nutrients do you get from grains?
    • #1 source of energy
    • carbohydrates
    • fiber
    • provide incomplete proteins
  5. What main nutrients do you get from vegetables?

    • minerals
    • fiber
  6. What main nutrients do you get from fruits?
    vitamins, minerals, fiber, and carbohydrates
  7. What main nutrients do you get from protein foods?
    • build and repair muscle tissue
    • iron
    • vitamin B
  8. What main nutrients do you get from dairy?
    • minerals (calcium, phosphorus)
    • protein
  9. Name three things you find on food labels
    • serving sizes
    • ingredients
    • nutrition facts
  10. What is unit price?
    price per unit/ounce (helps to find the better deals)
  11. What is an advantage and disadvantage to grocery shopping at a big box store?
    • Think Target/Walmart
    • Disadvantages: time consuming, fewer selection of meat, produce, limited customer service
    • Advantages: good prices
  12. What is an advantage and disadvantage to shopping at a grocery store?
    • Advantages: quick in and out, store brands, rewards cards, weekly ads, customer service, better selection of meat and produce
    • Disadvantages: higher prices
  13. What is an advantage and disadvantage to grocery shopping at a warehouse club?
    • think Costco
    • Advantages: customers buy bulk, range of services (tires, large appliances, furniture, food)
    • Disadvantage: bulk items you can't use before they go bad.
  14. Give 3 tips for wise grocery shopping
    • eye level - the sugar stuff for impulse purchases
    • lower cost foods, fresh on periphery
    • aisles - processed foods
    • have a list
    • go through the store backwards
  15. What is a loss leader?
    Item that a store is willing to sell at a lower price to get you in the store
  16. How many teaspoons in a tablespoons?
    3 tsp = 1 Tbs
  17. How do you half an egg?
    2 Tbs beaten egg
  18. How many cups in a gallon?
    16 cups
  19. What things would you take into consideration when evaluating a meal?
    color, texture, size and shape, flavor, temperature, preparation method, nutritional variety, heavy/light
  20. What is an ingredient that is measured by scooping and leveling?
    • granules - scoop into the dry measuring cup and level off
    • ex. baking powder, salt, sugar, etc.
  21. Name an ingredient that is measured by spooning and leveling
    • POWDERS - spoon into the dry measuring cup and level off (so as to not overpack)
    • ex. flour, powdered sugar
  22. What can happen if you don't plan a time schedule for cooking?
    May not all be done at the same time/in time
  23. What is the danger zone?
    40-140 degrees Fahrenheit
  24. How long can food be left out of the refrigerator?
    • Inside your house: 1-2 hours
    • Outside: 1 hour
  25. How long is our food supply cart allowed to be out of the refrigerator in lab?
    30 minutes
  26. When might you buy packaged foods instead of preparing the food?
    faster and easier
  27. Jobs of the manager in lab
    • completes lab sheet, timeline and recipes
    • major cooking
    • completes unit duty
    • gets clean linens and puts the used linens in laundry
  28. Job duties of the assistant manager in lab
    • get supplies from table
    • helps cook
    • sweeps floor
    • dries and puts away dishes
  29. Job of the aide in lab
    • helps cook
    • sets table
    • takes out trash
    • washes dishes and wipes out sinks
  30. Name one use for a metal spatula
    • level off dry ingredients in a cup
    • frosting cakes
  31. Name one use for a silicone spatula
    • scoop out thick liquids (such as batter or honey)
    • folding
  32. Name a use for a whisk
    • blend ingredients together (such as sauces or eggs)
    • folding
  33. Give a use for the kitchenaid (each attachment)
    • paddle - mixing batters and thin dough
    • wire whip - mixing liquids
    • dough hook - thick dough
  34. Give a use for your food chopper
    • dicing onions
    • chopping nuts
  35. Name an item you might cut with a paring knife
    • peeling vegetables and fruits
    • used for precise cutting - cutting citrus membranes
    • stemming strawberries
  36. Name an item you might cut with a chef's knife
    chopping carrots, potatoes, etc.
  37. What tool do you use to measure honey?
    glass liquid measuring cup
  38. What is a common cause of salmonella?
    contamination - found primarily in protein foods such as pork, poultry, and eggs.
  39. What is a common cause of e coli?
    poor sanitation - linked to eating uncooked meat, raw milk, unpasteurized juices, and contaminated leafy greens
  40. What is a common cause of botulism?
    • Canned things - problem occurs when foods contaminated with C. botulinum are not heat processed adequately to kill the spores prior to anaerobic storage for period of time
    • Because these bacteria can survive nicely in an oxygen-free environment, some canned products may be subject to toxin production.
  41. How do microwave ovens work?
    vibrating and heating the molecules
  42. What is standing time?
    Used in food preparation to denote an interval time when the food is left standing - still cooking
  43. Name two microwave safe materials
    • glass
    • ceramic
    • paper towels
  44. Name two materials that shouldn't go in the microwave
    • metal
    • one-time use plastic containers
  45. How does convection heat work?
    • Transfer of heat through a system by movement of currents of heated air, water, or other liquid.
    • ex. oven with fan, boiling water
  46. How does radiation heat work?
    • Transfer of energy directly from the source to the food being heated.
    • ex. roasting
  47. How does conduction heat work?
    • Transfer of heat to a material that is cooking the food.
    • ex. frying pan.
  48. What equipment do you need to can meat?
    Pressure canner - low acid foods
  49. What precautions do you need to take when canning jam?
    Make sure the jar seals and that you use clean jars
  50. List the order in which dishes are properly washed
    • Wash the lightest soiled items first
    • Usually include glasses, cups, and flatware - washing these items keeps your water fresher and ready to tackle bigger jobs.
    • Wash plates, bowls, and serving dishes
    • pans and heavily soiled items - reserve until the end of the washing process
  51. Why can sponges be a breeding ground for bacteria?
    high moisture, a lot of nutrients - also forget to be cleaned
  52. Why can't you use any oil for frying?
    Can't use extra virgin olive oil for frying because it has too low a smoke point.
  53. What is a good fat for biscuits?
    • shortening - they can be split apart easily and remain separated
    • fats in biscuit - usually solid
    • fats in muffins - usually liquid
  54. Can you use any type of margarine for baking?
    No, because of the high water content
  55. What are the vegetable categories?
    • bulbs - onions
    • roots - carrots
    • tuber - potatoes
    • leaves/stems - broccoli
    • fruits - tomatoes
    • seeds - legumes and beans
  56. What are the fruit categories?
    • berries - strawberries
    • citrus - oranges
    • drupes - peaches
    • grapes
    • melons - muskmelons, cantelopes
    • pomes - apples
    • tropical and subtropical - pineapple
  57. Why is it important to cook vegetables in little water and/or for short time periods?
    • to maintain the nutrient content - retaining water-soluble vitamins
    • helps maintain texture and color
  58. Give a couple of guidelines for selecting fresh fruits and vegetables
    • color - natural color should be deep and rich
    • firm - look for bruising
    • shape - check if fully developed
    • aroma - should smell like it tastes
    • weight - fresh fruits are heavier
  59. Give a guideline for cooking with dairy products
    • Avoid high temperatures
    • keep the heating period as short as possible
    • stir constantly
  60. What could you use as a substitution for oil in a recipe?
    applesauce, any fruit/vegetable puree
  61. Which cholesterol is a good one?
  62. How can you reduce bad cholesterol (LDL)
    • choose the right fats
    • manounsaturated fats in oils
    • unsaturated fat - liquid at room temperature
    • omega-3 fatty acids - unsaturated fats
    • choose a vegetable oil when cooking
    • choose leaner meats and low-fat dairy
    • limit processed and fried foods
    • include fish, nuts, seeds, avocados
    • exercise
  63. Which form of vegatarianism is the most restrictive?
    vegan - plan products only
  64. Why do some people choose to be vegetarian?
    animal welfare, improve their overall health, environmental concerns, asserting independence through foods, commonality with friends
  65. What is a complete protein?
    • a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of people
    • ex. meat, fish, poultry, egg, cheese, yogurt, and milk
  66. What is an incomplete protein?
    • any protein that lacks one or more essential amino acids in correct proportions
    • ex. grains, nuts, beans, seeds, peas, corn
  67. Name an appropriate method for preparing a less tender cut of meat
    • long, slow cooking provided by moist heat methods is preferred
    • ex. braising
  68. What affects the tenderness of meat?
    • how much use that muscle had on the animal
    • ex. tenderloin receives almost no exercise
  69. What is butter made of?
    saturated fat - 80% made from cream
  70. What is hydrogenation?
    Process of adding hydrogen to polyunsaturated fatty acids to change oils into solids
  71. What is pasteurization?
    Heat treatment to kill disease-producing microorganisms in milk
  72. What is homogenization?
    A technique where heated milk is forced through tiny apertures, pressurized. It forces the fat globules to break into droplets so small that they stay suspended and distributed evenly.
  73. What fat will give you a firmer cookie? Margarine, shortening, or butter?
    • Shortening - they will hold their shape and flow less readily
    • you can use 1/2 shortening and 1/2 butter for firmer cookies