Corrections Chapter 7.txt

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Corrections Chapter 7.txt
2013-10-28 16:19:35

corrections chapter 7
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  1. Trends in the Prison Population since the 1980s
    rise in elderly prisoners, minority prisoners, juveniles waived to adult status, and drug and property offenders
  2. Racial Disparity
    • often times there are more minorities in prisons than whites
    • this occurs because minorities tend to have:
    • 1) higher poverty rates
    • 2) higher arrest rates
    • 3) higher drug usage
    • 4) higher percentage of crimes committed against them
  3. Designs of Prisons
    • radial design
    • telephone pole design
    • courtyard style
    • campus style
  4. Maximum Security
    • designed to minimize the possibility of escapees and violence
    • strict limitations on inmates and visitors
    • 38% of state inmates
    • strict routines
    • frequent head counts
    • structures are built to last and tend to be older
  5. Medium Security
    • designed to prevent escapees and violence
    • less rigid than in maximum security facilities
    • 43% of state inmates
    • more privileges and contact with outside world
    • campus or courtyard style
    • razor-wire and guard towers remain
  6. Minimum Security
    • design and organized to permit inmates and visitors as much freedom as consistent with the concept of incarceration
    • 19% of state inmates
    • lacks guard towers and walls
    • prisoners live in dormitories or small private rooms
    • more personal freedom
    • still a prison
  7. Female Inmates
    • many women who enter prison are pregnant or have young children
    • have more hygienic needs than men
    • substance abuse issues
    • women have generally been the caretakers for their children
    • incarcerated women often have a history of sexual and physical abuse
    • gender issues (correctional officer-inmate relationship)
  8. Women Prisoners as Mothers
    • the separation of female inmates from their children is one of the greatest challenges in prison administration today
    • increasing number of women come to prison pregnant
    • greater need for medical stall
    • programs have developed to aid the inmate to bond with her infant
    • parenting programs for inmates to stay connected to their children
    • Girl Scouts Behind Bars
  9. Classification of Female Prisoners
    • classified like male inmates
    • as accomplices to men, they were given the same security classification
    • "over classification" became a barrier to successful reentry
    • reduced points for certain types of crimes
    • recognized that having children and close ties to communities makes females less of a risk
    • many females are moved to less secure prisons
  10. Challenges of Female Inmates
    • parenting issues and medical care
    • employment barriers - single parent lacking education and/or vocational skills
    • mental health - exhibit more mental health issues
    • substance abuse
  11. Programming Change for Female Inmates
    • Barefield v. Leach - equal programs needed to be provided for male and female inmates
    • Pargo v. Elliot - differences in programming between male and female prison did not violate Equal Protection
    • these led to expanded programing for females and additional facilities to allow female inmates to serve time closer to their families