Corrections Chapter 11.txt

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Corrections Chapter 11.txt
2013-10-28 16:20:59

corrections chapter 11
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  1. Erving Goffman
    • Total Insitutiton
    • isolating people from society and allowing staff to manipulate them.
    • this results in "institutionalized" people:
    • 1) staff members supervise all spheres of an inmate's life
    • 2) the environment is highly standardized with each inmate treated the same
    • 3) rules and schedules dictate how inmates perform all aspects of their daily life
    • he argued that these practices are degrading and problematic for inmates
  2. Stanford Prison Experiment
    • Philip Zimbardo constructed a mock prison with college students to study how a prison environment can change human behavior
    • scheduled to last for two weeks, but was terminated after 7 days
    • students assigned the role of guard quickly exhibited hostility toward the "inmates" by bullying them and engaging in behavior o demean them
    • students who were "inmates" soon became servile, dehumanized robots
  3. Prisonzation
    • the process by which a new inmate absorbs the customs of prison society and learns to adapt to the environment
    • deprivation vs. importation
    • - deprivation: much of the prison subculture stems form aspects of life of which inmates are deprived
    • - importation: aspects of life inmates bring with them into prison
  4. Inmate Code
    • inmates become socialized to the prison culture and quickly learn the inmate code
    • do your own time
    • be a stand-up guy
    • don't rat on other inmates
    • don't trust the guards
    • don't exploit other inmates
    • maintain dignity and respect
    • settle conflict between inmates
    • respect the real "cons"
  5. Prison Culture
    • indigenous to prison vs. imported into prison
    • convicts: long-term inmates, often grew up in foster homes or juvenile institutions
    • thieves: inmates who have adopted a career of crime
    • square johns: usually first-time offenders who identify with "traditional" society
  6. Interpersonal Violence
    • occurs between individual inmates
    • involves personal issues
  7. Collective Violence
    • initiated by group soy inmates
    • creates prison riots and disturbances
  8. Prisoner-Prisoner Violence
    • prison gangs (security threat groups)
    • typically divided across racial/ethnic lines
    • prison administrators want to weaken gang influence by
    • - identifying members
    • - segregating housing
    • - restricting gang symbols
    • - strip searches
    • - monitoring mail and telephones
  9. Antisocial Offenders
    • use force and coercion
    • violence works for them
  10. Special-Needs Offenders
    • unable to function well
    • often react with violence
  11. Psychopathic Offenders
    • predatory, cold, calculating
    • violence simply for enjoyment
  12. Prison Gangs
    • seen in prisons dating to 1960s
    • controlled the violence in prison
    • members usually have extensive criminal history
    • often prison gangs were extensions of street gangs
    • control and carry out criminal activities within the prison
  13. Identifiers of Gang Members
    • attitude and demeanor
    • paranoid
    • secretive
    • grooming
    • hair (head and facial)
    • customs
    • hand signs
    • greetings
    • phrases
    • symbols
    • tattoos
  14. Mexican Manfia
    • aka La Eme or MS13
    • late 1950s
    • mexican american
    • considered the most active gang
    • drug trafficking
    • enemies: black guerrilla family, la nuestra familia
  15. La Nuestra Familia
    • original formed for protection purpose from the Mexican Mafia
    • rivals: mexican mafia, texas syndicate, aryan brotherhood
    • symbols: 14 or XIV or sombrero with a machete
    • N is the 14th letter
  16. Aryan Brotherhood
    • 1967
    • white supremacist group
    • wanted to oppose the threats of Black and Hispanic gangs
    • enemies: black guerrilla family, crips, bloods
    • symbols: Shamrock, "AB", swastikas, "666"
  17. Black Guerrilla Family
    • 1966
    • african american
    • politically oriented (marxist roots and antigovernment)
    • life pledge of loyalty
    • symbols: sabers, machetes, rifles, shotguns with BGF
    • enemies: aryan brotherhood, texas syndicate, mexican mafia
  18. Texas Syndicate
    • 1970s
    • mexican american/hispanic
    • originated in California
    • protect Texas inmates in California
    • paramilitary
    • drug trafficking and contract murders
    • symbol: overlapping "TS"
    • enemies: aryan brotherhood, mexican mafia, la nuestra familia
  19. Controlling Prison Gangs
    • renounce membership and debrief
    • isolate gang members
    • disciplinary segregation
    • transfer to supermax prison
  20. Homosexual Behavior in Prison
    • most sexual assaults in prisons occur to generate fear and to maintain control over the prison population
    • sexual triangles
    • - consequence of single-sex prisons
    • - prohibited in prison - often not consensual
  21. Prison Rape Elimination Act
    • enacted in 2003 - required prisons to collect information on the prevalence of sexual assault in prison
    • prison reception - at intake, inmates advised of possibility of sexual assault; staff trained to watch for sexual aggression
    • steps toward prevention - conjugal visits (allowed in 6 states) - doesn't necessarily reduce instances of homosexual activity
  22. Drugs in Prison
    • many inmates in prison have drug addictions
    • drugs in prison generate huge profits
    • prisons try to reduce drug trafficking by
    • 1) searching inmates after visits
    • 2) random drug testing of inmates
    • 3) frisking staff as they enter prison
  23. History of Women's Prison
    • originally housed with men
    • Walnut St. Jail (late 1700s) - women housed separately
    • England (1816) - law passed to requite families to be supervised by female guards
    • Reformatory Model - cottage-style architecture
    • Present day - campus-style architecture
  24. Culture in Women's Prisons
    • inmate code not as important to female inmates
    • female inmates not hesitant to talk to staff - no presumption that inmate is a "snitch"
    • greater stress and depression because of separation from children
  25. Pseudofamilies
    • women in prison create family relationships - "family" members attempt to live in the same housing unit
    • homosexual relationships tend to involve emotional support - a large percentage of female inmates are involved in lesbian relationships
    • women have a high rate of sexual victimization of other inmates