Corrections Exam #2.txt

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  1. Trends in the Prison Population since the 1980s
    rise in elderly prisoners, minority prisoners, juveniles waived to adult status, and drug and property offenders
  2. Racial Disparity
    • often times there are more minorities in prisons than whites
    • this occurs because minorities tend to have:
    • 1) higher poverty rates
    • 2) higher arrest rates
    • 3) higher drug usage
    • 4) higher percentage of crimes committed against them
  3. Designs of Prisons
    • radial design
    • telephone pole design
    • courtyard style
    • campus style
  4. Maximum Security
    • designed to minimize the possibility of escapees and violence
    • strict limitations on inmates and visitors
    • 38% of state inmates
    • strict routines
    • frequent head counts
    • structures are built to last and tend to be older
  5. Medium Security
    • designed to prevent escapees and violence
    • less rigid than in maximum security facilities
    • 43% of state inmates
    • more privileges and contact with outside world
    • campus or courtyard style
    • razor-wire and guard towers remain
  6. Minimum Security
    • design and organized to permit inmates and visitors as much freedom as consistent with the concept of incarceration
    • 19% of state inmates
    • lacks guard towers and walls
    • prisoners live in dormitories or small private rooms
    • more personal freedom
    • still a prison
  7. Female Inmates
    • many women who enter prison are pregnant or have young children
    • have more hygienic needs than men
    • substance abuse issues
    • women have generally been the caretakers for their children
    • incarcerated women often have a history of sexual and physical abuse
    • gender issues (correctional officer-inmate relationship)
  8. Women Prisoners as Mothers
    • the separation of female inmates from their children is one of the greatest challenges in prison administration today
    • increasing number of women come to prison pregnant
    • greater need for medical stall
    • programs have developed to aid the inmate to bond with her infant
    • parenting programs for inmates to stay connected to their children
    • Girl Scouts Behind Bars
  9. Classification of Female Prisoners
    • classified like male inmates
    • as accomplices to men, they were given the same security classification
    • "over classification" became a barrier to successful reentry
    • reduced points for certain types of crimes
    • recognized that having children and close ties to communities makes females less of a risk
    • many females are moved to less secure prisons
  10. Challenges of Female Inmates
    • parenting issues and medical care
    • employment barriers - single parent lacking education and/or vocational skills
    • mental health - exhibit more mental health issues
    • substance abuse
  11. Programming Change for Female Inmates
    • Barefield v. Leach - equal programs needed to be provided for male and female inmates
    • Pargo v. Elliot - differences in programming between male and female prison did not violate Equal Protection
    • these led to expanded programing for females and additional facilities to allow female inmates to serve time closer to their families
  12. Chief Executive Officer of Prison
    warden or superintendent
  13. Responsible for all Staff
    • uniformed staff
    • professional and administrative staff
  14. Custody and Security Functions
    • charged with mannging
    • supervise all areas of prison that house inmates
    • uniformed/paramilitary
    • largest department of prison workers
  15. Director/Secretary of a State Department of Corrections
    • public & media affairs: interact with television and print media
    • legislative liaison: helps to shape new laws and shape corrections policy
    • legal advisors: responds to inmate lawsuits, gives legal advice to the director
    • internal affairs: inspector within the department who deals with ethical issues
  16. Department of Correction Functions
    • administrative: budget development and accounting, construction of new prisons
    • human resources: recruitment and hiring, labor relations, and retirement
    • community supervision: in some states the department oversees probation and parole services
    • field operations: state prisons may be assigned to a reign and managed regionally
  17. Treatment Functions
    • education and vocational training
    • mental health programs
    • recreation
    • religious services
    • substance abuse treatment
  18. Service Functions
    • budget and financing
    • maintenance
    • laundry operations
    • work programs
    • food and health service
    • commissary
  19. Unit Management in a Prison
    • organizes prisons into smaller components
    • enhance staff and inmate interaction
    • determine inmate job assignments
    • allows for close monitoring of inmate activities
    • minimizes inmate behavioral problems
  20. Controlling Inmate Behavior
    • clear policies and procedures
    • policies clearing communicated
    • consistent implementation of policies
    • comprehensive training of staff
    • quality assurance - ensuring compliance with prison policies, policy audit, ACAA
  21. Policy Audit
    • review of written prison policy documents
    • observation of staff as they perform duties
  22. American Correctional Association Accreditation
    • voluntary
    • recognition that prison has met rigorous standards
  23. Inmate Classification
    • controls inmate behavior
    • determines inmates' prison security level
    • how an inmate is classified my determine the housing assignment
    • classification level can act as motivator for good behavior
    • inmates are subject to reclassification
  24. Disciplinary System
    • you can lose "good time" credit
    • written policy provided to all inmates
    • list of fair and equitable sanctions
    • control threatening inmates
  25. Management Staff
    • warden
    • safety manager
    • institution administrator
    • employee development specialist
    • classification specialist
  26. Staff to Supervise Inmates
    • recreation specialist
    • case manager
    • correctional officer
  27. Professional Staff
    • teacher
    • psychologist
    • substance abuse counselor
  28. Facility Staff
    • computer specialist
    • maintenance worker
    • secretary/clerical worker
    • laundry supervisor
    • food service manager
  29. Close System Organization
    operate with only input from within the prison organization
  30. Open System Organization
    frequent contact between he internal prison organization and other groups for input on policy
  31. Warden Joseph Ragan (Stateville Prison 1930-1960)
    • ruled the prison with an iron fist
    • demanded strict adherence from staff and inmates
    • prison clean and spotless
    • inmates marched in straight lines
    • believed his function was to synchronize men and their behavior
  32. Function of a Warden (Stateville Post 1960s)
    • federal court intervention required that the management style shifted from discipline to rehabilitation
    • by 1978, conditions in Stateville deteriorated to anarchy
    • gangs ran the prison
  33. Organizational Culture in a Prison
    • modern wardens no longer function autonomously
    • prisons have mission statements
    • accreditation standards
    • transformational leaders
    • contributes to creating the prison's culture
    • transactional leaders
    • coordinates with outside agencies
  34. Role of a Correctional Officer
    • make up approximately 2/3 of all prison staff
    • assist in the accomplishment of the prison's mission statement
    • need to buy in to the prison's culture
    • maintain control and order in the prison
    • responsible for constant supervision of inmates
    • important to adhere strictly to prison policy and procedures
    • maintain close communication with inmates
  35. Correctional Officer Assignments
    • living units
    • yard officers
    • perimeter security
    • relief officers
    • administrative building
    • work detail
    • industrial shop, school
  36. Correctional Officer
    • Stress and Danger: need for constant vigilance
    • Gain Compliance of Inmates: enact discipline
    • Post Orders: detail of daily schedule
    • Organizational Stress: understaffing, shift work
    • Critical to Daily Management: carry out policies of prison
  37. Uniformed Staff
    primary job is safety and security of the prison
  38. Professional Staff
    • psychological
    • education
    • religious
    • vocational
    • substance abuse
  39. Staff Services
    • laundry
    • food preparation
    • staff training
    • prison industries
    • maintenance
  40. Management Culture
    the way leadership deals with and communicates with subordinate staff
  41. Relationship Culture
    the style with which staff members view and communicate with inmates
  42. Female Correctional Officers
    • Title VII (1972): proscribes employment discrimination based on gender
    • Douthard v. Rawlinson (1977): upheld Alabama's prohibition from hiring women due to the deplorable conditions in Alabama's prisons
    • Gunther v. Iowa (1979): court held that Iowa's prison s did not have deplorable conditions and refusing to hire women was in the violation of the law
  43. Erving Goffman
    • Total Insitutiton
    • isolating people from society and allowing staff to manipulate them.
    • this results in "institutionalized" people:
    • 1) staff members supervise all spheres of an inmate's life
    • 2) the environment is highly standardized with each inmate treated the same
    • 3) rules and schedules dictate how inmates perform all aspects of their daily life
    • he argued that these practices are degrading and problematic for inmates
  44. Stanford Prison Experiment
    • Philip Zimbardo constructed a mock prison with college students to study how a prison environment can change human behavior
    • scheduled to last for two weeks, but was terminated after 7 days
    • students assigned the role of guard quickly exhibited hostility toward the "inmates" by bullying them and engaging in behavior o demean them
    • students who were "inmates" soon became servile, dehumanized robots
  45. Prisonzation
    • the process by which a new inmate absorbs the customs of prison society and learns to adapt to the environment
    • deprivation vs. importation
    • - deprivation: much of the prison subculture stems form aspects of life of which inmates are deprived
    • - importation: aspects of life inmates bring with them into prison
  46. Inmate Code
    • inmates become socialized to the prison culture and quickly learn the inmate code
    • do your own time
    • be a stand-up guy
    • don't rat on other inmates
    • don't trust the guards
    • don't exploit other inmates
    • maintain dignity and respect
    • settle conflict between inmates
    • respect the real "cons"
  47. Prison Culture
    • indigenous to prison vs. imported into prison
    • convicts: long-term inmates, often grew up in foster homes or juvenile institutions
    • thieves: inmates who have adopted a career of crime
    • square johns: usually first-time offenders who identify with "traditional" society
  48. Interpersonal Violence
    • occurs between individual inmates
    • involves personal issues
  49. Collective Violence
    • initiated by group soy inmates
    • creates prison riots and disturbances
  50. Prisoner-Prisoner Violence
    • prison gangs (security threat groups)
    • typically divided across racial/ethnic lines
    • prison administrators want to weaken gang influence by
    • - identifying members
    • - segregating housing
    • - restricting gang symbols
    • - strip searches
    • - monitoring mail and telephones
  51. Antisocial Offenders
    • use force and coercion
    • violence works for them
  52. Special-Needs Offenders
    • unable to function well
    • often react with violence
  53. Psychopathic Offenders
    • predatory, cold, calculating
    • violence simply for enjoyment
  54. Prison Gangs
    • seen in prisons dating to 1960s
    • controlled the violence in prison
    • members usually have extensive criminal history
    • often prison gangs were extensions of street gangs
    • control and carry out criminal activities within the prison
  55. Identifiers of Gang Members
    • attitude and demeanor
    • paranoid
    • secretive
    • grooming
    • hair (head and facial)
    • customs
    • hand signs
    • greetings
    • phrases
    • symbols
    • tattoos
  56. Mexican Manfia
    • aka La Eme or MS13
    • late 1950s
    • mexican american
    • considered the most active gang
    • drug trafficking
    • enemies: black guerrilla family, la nuestra familia
  57. La Nuestra Familia
    • original formed for protection purpose from the Mexican Mafia
    • rivals: mexican mafia, texas syndicate, aryan brotherhood
    • symbols: 14 or XIV or sombrero with a machete
    • N is the 14th letter
  58. Aryan Brotherhood
    • 1967
    • white supremacist group
    • wanted to oppose the threats of Black and Hispanic gangs
    • enemies: black guerrilla family, crips, bloods
    • symbols: Shamrock, "AB", swastikas, "666"
  59. Black Guerrilla Family
    • 1966
    • african american
    • politically oriented (marxist roots and antigovernment)
    • life pledge of loyalty
    • symbols: sabers, machetes, rifles, shotguns with BGF
    • enemies: aryan brotherhood, texas syndicate, mexican mafia
  60. Texas Syndicate
    • 1970s
    • mexican american/hispanic
    • originated in California
    • protect Texas inmates in California
    • paramilitary
    • drug trafficking and contract murders
    • symbol: overlapping "TS"
    • enemies: aryan brotherhood, mexican mafia, la nuestra familia
  61. Controlling Prison Gangs
    • renounce membership and debrief
    • isolate gang members
    • disciplinary segregation
    • transfer to supermax prison
  62. Homosexual Behavior in Prison
    • most sexual assaults in prisons occur to generate fear and to maintain control over the prison population
    • sexual triangles
    • - consequence of single-sex prisons
    • - prohibited in prison - often not consensual
  63. Prison Rape Elimination Act
    • enacted in 2003 - required prisons to collect information on the prevalence of sexual assault in prison
    • prison reception - at intake, inmates advised of possibility of sexual assault; staff trained to watch for sexual aggression
    • steps toward prevention - conjugal visits (allowed in 6 states) - doesn't necessarily reduce instances of homosexual activity
  64. Drugs in Prison
    • many inmates in prison have drug addictions
    • drugs in prison generate huge profits
    • prisons try to reduce drug trafficking by
    • 1) searching inmates after visits
    • 2) random drug testing of inmates
    • 3) frisking staff as they enter prison
  65. History of Women's Prison
    • originally housed with men
    • Walnut St. Jail (late 1700s) - women housed separately
    • England (1816) - law passed to requite families to be supervised by female guards
    • Reformatory Model - cottage-style architecture
    • Present day - campus-style architecture
  66. Culture in Women's Prisons
    • inmate code not as important to female inmates
    • female inmates not hesitant to talk to staff - no presumption that inmate is a "snitch"
    • greater stress and depression because of separation from children
  67. Pseudofamilies
    • women in prison create family relationships - "family" members attempt to live in the same housing unit
    • homosexual relationships tend to involve emotional support - a large percentage of female inmates are involved in lesbian relationships
    • women have a high rate of sexual victimization of other inmates
  68. Safety
    • staff and inmates remain safe from assault
    • effective inmate classification systems
    • control of inmate movement and accountability
  69. Security
    • consistently implemented security
    • control of contraband
    • separation of unruly inmates
  70. Inmate Accountability
    • assignment to work programs
    • staff have direct contact with inmates
    • frequent inmate counts
  71. Inmate Movement
    • movement of inmates is highly controlled
    • inmates must have a pass to move within the prison
  72. Regular Counts
    • scheduled in housing units
    • ensures there are no escapes
  73. Census Counts
    • less formal
    • conducted at work and program assignment
  74. Random Counts
    • occur at any time
    • all inmate movement must cease
  75. Control of Contraband
    • inmates may receive contraband through mail and packages
    • inmate visitors may bring contraband into prison
    • inmates may gain control over items valuable in prison but should the in an inmate's possession without staff supervision
    • unethical staff members may bring contraband into prison
    • frequent, random searches of inmates and cells helps prison administration eliminate contraband
  76. Administrative Detention
    non-punitive confinement which houses inmates who have violated prison rules, or inmates whose safety is threatened if they remain in the general population
  77. Disciplinary Segregation
    housing for an inmate who has been found guilty violating prison rules
  78. Prison Riots
    • Attica 1971, New Mexico 1980, Ohio 1993
    • prison riots and disturbances are rarely planned but often result from two type soy events
    • 1) environmental factors that create tension such as hot weather, insufficient recreational equipment, poor food, etc.
    • 2) a precipitating event, an unforeseen "spark" which sets off an inmate riot
  79. Prevention of Prison Riots
    • prison administration engage in efforts to reduce inmate unrest and minimize the possibility of precipitating events:
    • - importance of managerial visibility an approachability
    • - performing security audits
    • - consistently enforcing all rules and regulations
    • - maintaining effective communication between staff and inmates
    • - providing appropriate programs and services
    • - sanitation, safety, security, random contraband searches
    • - sensitivity to changes in institution atmosphere
    • - use risk-assessment tools to identify issues and timely correct them
  80. Three Types of Emergency Teams
    • hostage negotiation teams
    • disturbance control team
    • special emergency responses team
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Corrections Exam #2.txt
2013-10-28 20:24:43

corrections exam 2
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