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brain and spinal cord
What makes up the Central Nervous System?
What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System?
sensory and motor
What are two types of systems that "talk" to the PNS?
What is the start and stop of the spinal cord in vertebral units?
thickness of little finger
How thick is the spinal cord?
What is the bundle of nerves at the of the spinal cord?
Hint* means "tail of the horse"
List the order of groupings for the vertebral column, starting with the head (going down).
How many vertebrae in the cervical column?
How many vertebrae in the thorasic column?
How many vertebrae in the lumbar column
How many vertebrae in the sacrum column?
How many vertebrae in the coccyx?
layers of tissues that protect the spinal cord
What are the meninges?
What is the three layers of the meninges?
inner most layer, it touches the spinal cord
Where is pia mater found?
middle layer, it looks like a spiders web
where is arachnoid layer found?
subarachnoid, this is where cerebrospinal fluid is found
What is the space just below the arachnoid layer and what does it contain?
to cushion the spinal cord
What is main function of cerebrospinal fluid?
outer most layer, it is tough!
epidural- it's space is located inside the bony spinal canal but just outside the dura mater
subdural- artificial space created by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma, pathologic process, or the absence of cerebrospinal fluid as seen in a cadaver
LP- lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid drawn from between two vertebrae
Where is the dura mater located?
Diagram of spinal cord menint3w
gray matter- this is where cell bodies and synapses are located
white matter- myelinated axons
What is the difference between gray and white matter?
the Central Canal
For structure of spinal cord, where can CSF be found (other than subarachnoid space)
less axons are needed to support
As you move down the spinal column, there is less and less white matter, why?
How many pairs of spinal nerves does a human have?
C1 nerve is ABOVE the the C1 bone/vertebrae BUT THEN
C8 is BELOW the C7 bone/vertebrae
Soooo, the first 7 nerves exit above the bone, the rest of the nerves exit below.
How are nerves in spinal cord named?
In the neck, look below the nerve for the name of the bone
Below the neck, look above the nerve of the name of the bone
Another way to remember the nerves, specifically the bones (vertebrae) names?
8 pairs (16 total)
This differs from the 7 cervical vertebrae
How many pairs of Cervical nerves are there?
12 (24 total)
How many pairs of nerves in thoracic?
5 (10 total)
How many pairs of nerves in Lumbar?
How many pairs of nerves in Sacral?
1 (2) total
How many pairs in coccyxgeal?
Epineurium (contains blood vessels & the fascicle)
(fascicle is a small bundle of nerve fibers, consists of perineurium and endoneurium)
- Nerve Structure
- Name the three main layers, starting from the outer most layer, working in.
the nerve endings on the body surface
*not necessarily indicative of nerve muscle connections (there is some overlap but useful in estimating).
What are dermatones?
Under the chin, C3
Where do dermatomes start? (name location and nerve number)
C4 = clavicle
C5 = thumb side of arm, no digits
C6 = arm + thumb
C7 = arm + pointer and middle fingers
C8 = arm + ring and pinky fingers
T10- belly button
- C4 is located.....
- C5 is located.....
- C6 is located.....
- C7 is located....
- C8 is located....
- T4 is ...
- T10 is....
- Note T12 and L1 postions
- Roots of nerves
- Sensory vs. motor
sensory- delivered via dorsal root (posterior)
motor- shipped out via ventral root (anterior)
- Sensory is located?
- Motor is located?
a nodule on a dorsal root of the spine that contains cell bodies of nerve cells (neurons) that carry signals from sensory organs toward the appropriate integration center.
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
Dorsal rami (sensory)
- goes to back of head/trunk region
Ventral rami (motor)
- extends into the body, this is why it's bigger!
What are the two primary branches of the spinal nerve called?
the dorsal root is where the nerves are connected to the spinal cord
the dorsal ramus is where nerves are connected to the body
What is the major difference between the DORSAL ROOT and the DORSAL RAMUS?
nerve plexus is a network of intersecting nerves. They combine sets of ventral rami of spinal nerves that serve the same area of the body into one large grouped nerve
*NO thorasic plexuses (located between T1-T12) aka intercostals
What are the four main plexuses (of ventral rami?)
to the skin over the neck & clavicle.
Cervical Plexus = C1-C4
the phrenic nerve, one is on each side of the heart, it works the diaphragm
Where on the body does the the Cervical plexus go? Also what long branch (C4) innervates muscles of the diaphragm?
branches to the upper limb
Brachial Plexus = C5-T1
Where on the body does the Brachial plexus go?
to anterior lower limb (front side of leg)
Lumbar Plexus = L1-L4
Where on the body does the Lumbar plexus go?
to posterior lower limb (back side of leg)
Sacral Plexus = L4-S4
Where on the body does the Sacral plexus go?
muscle will contract
- Spinal Reflexes:
- If you stretch a muscle, what is the action?
then (eventually muscle contracts)
what if the muscle spindle is activated?
reflex circut- patella (knee jerk) reflex