A&P Chapter 12

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stef1208
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24348
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A&P Chapter 12
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2010-06-22 00:23:56
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anatomy physiology
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A&P Ch 12
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  1. What are the 3 parts of the triune brain?
    • reptilian (old)
    • paleomammalian (not as old)
    • neomammalian (new)
  2. the closer to the spinal cord, the ____ the brain
    "older"
  3. nervous tissue comes from the _____
    ectoderm
  4. What is another name for forebrain?
    Prosencephalon
  5. What is another name for midbrain?
    Mesensephalon
  6. What is another name for the hindbrain?
    Rhombencephalon
  7. The cerebrum, cortex hemispheres, and diencephalon are involved in the ____.
    Forebrain (prosencephalon)
  8. The brain stem stem (midbrain) is involved in the ____.
    mesencephalon (midbrain)
  9. The brain stem (pons, medulla) and cerebellum are involved in the ____.
    rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
  10. What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
    • medulla (oblongata)
    • midbrain
    • pons
  11. The folds of the brain begin at _____ weeks and start to get ___ and ___.
    26; gyri & sulci
  12. Why does the brain have folds?
    limiting size; need to fold over because we have all the excess cell bodies
  13. Where is the third ventricle located?
    diencephalon
  14. What are the two "matters" of the brain?
    gray & white
  15. What makes the white matter white?
    fat
  16. In the spinal cord, where is the gray matter.
    deep inside (it must be protected)
  17. What is located deep in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
    cell bodies of neurons
  18. In which two regions of the brain is the nuclei stretched out to other places?
    • brain stem
    • cerebellum (in cerebellum they are farther from center)
  19. The four ventricles are filled with what?
    CSF
  20. CSF is a derivative of what?
    plasma
  21. Ventricles are lined with what cells?
    ependymal cells
  22. What shape are the left and right (1&2) lateral ventricles? Where are they located? What separates them?
    • They are C-shaped.
    • They lie deep within the cerebral hemispheres.
    • Separated by septum pellucidum.
  23. The third ventricle lies within the ______ and communicates with the lateral ventricles via two ________.
    • diencephalon
    • interventricular foramina
  24. Where does the fourth ventricle lie? How does it communicate with the third ventricle?
    • lies in the hindbrain (rhombencephalon).
    • the cerebral aqueduct
  25. What is the brain floating in?
    CSF
  26. What are the ridges in the brain called? The grooves?
    • gyrus/gyri (ridges/bumps)
    • sulcus/sulci (grooves/shallow fissures)
  27. The two cerebral hemispheres are separated along the midline by what?
    longitudinal fissure
  28. What separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum?
    transverse cerebral fissure
  29. What are the four lobes of the brain? What are their associations?
    • frontal - thinking
    • parietal - sensory & motor
    • temporal - taste, hearing, smell
    • occipital - vision
  30. What is the cortex of the brain that cannot be seen on the surface?
    Insula
  31. What are the two regions that lie beside the central sulcus?
    • primary motor area
    • primary somatosensory cortex
  32. What is white matter?
    communication fibers between axons
  33. Rostral is the direction towards the ____.
    nose
  34. Caudal is the direction towards the _____.
    Rear end
  35. Which cortex allows for the continuous control of skilled movement?
    Primary motor cortex
  36. Which cortex is the region controlling learned motor skills and integrating them with other things going on?
    premotor cortex
  37. What is a motor speech area (controls muscles involved in speech production)?
    Broca's area
  38. What part of the cerebral cortex controls eye movement?
    frontal eye field
  39. What cortex allows spatial discrimination and ability to detect the location of the stimulus? (i.e. feeling the air on your skin)
    primary somatosensory
  40. What cortex integrates sensory information and produces understanding of the stimulus being felt?
    somatosensory association cortex
  41. Which two areas (cortex) allow the reception and interpretation of visual stimuli? Where are these areas located in the brain?
    • primary visual cortex & visual association area
    • located in the occipital lobe
  42. Which two areas (cortex) allow the detection of the properties and contextual recognition of sound? Where are these areas located in the brain?
    • primary auditory cortex & auditory association area
    • located in the temporal lobes
  43. Which cortex allows for the detection of odors? Where is this cortex located in the brain?
    • primary olfactory cortex
    • located in temporal lobe
  44. Which cortex allows for the detection of balance?
    vestibular cortex
  45. Which cortex is involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality; closely linked to the limbic (motion) system?
    prefrontal cortex
  46. What are the language areas involved in comprehension and articulation?
    • Wernicke's area
    • Broca's area
    • the lateral prefrontal cortex
    • lateral & ventral parts of the temporal lobe
  47. What is the name of an area that receives input from all sensory area, integrating signals into a single thought?
    general interpretation area
  48. What area is involved in conscious visceral sensation?
    visceral association area
  49. Is lateralization about symmetry or asymmetry?
    asymmetry
  50. What is it called when each cerebral hemisphere has unique abilities not shared with the other half?
    lateralization
  51. Which hemisphere dominates language, math, and logic?
    left side
  52. Which hemisphere dominates visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, and artistic skills?
    right side
  53. ______'s area is involved in reading whereas _____'s area is involved in motor speech.
    Wernicke's and Broca's
  54. What is responsible for communication between cerebral areas and the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers?
    cerebral white matter
  55. Consists of a group of subcortical nuclei, which play a role in motor control and regulating attention and cognition.
    basal nuclei
  56. What are the "numbered" areas of the brain?
    Brodmann's areas
  57. The man figure that demonstrates the relative number of neurons used for certain senses.
    sensory homunculus
  58. The tracts that connect the left and right brain reside in the _____.
    Corpus callosum
  59. What is the starred structure?
    Corpus collosum
  60. What is the starred structure?
    cingulate gyrus
  61. What is this representing?
    motor homunculi
  62. What is the term associated with the motor homunculi?
    somatotopic
  63. What are the fibers that are on the same side, and they don't cross over to the other side of the brain?
    association fibers
  64. What are the fibers that run north to south (nostral to caudal)?
    projection fibers
  65. What fibers cross over within the brain (i.e. corpus collosum)
    commissural fibers
  66. The putamen and globus pallidus are the anatomical structures of what?
    lentiform nucleus (of the basal nuclei)
  67. What are the fibers that cross from right over left (or left over to right) and form triangles?
    decussation of pyramids
  68. Pyramidal is ____ output.
    motor
  69. What is one lateral to another lateral?
    contralateral
  70. What is another name for basal nuclei?
    corpus striatum
  71. What is the functional, learning center of the brain (almond-shaped)?
    amygdala
  72. What is the black substance located inside midbrain? What does it secrete?
    substantia nigra; it secretes DA
  73. What are the 3 gray matter areas?
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  74. Which "gray matter" plays a key role in mediating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, and memory?
    thalamus
  75. Which "gray matter" is the control center of the body, regulating ANS activity such as emotional response, body temp, food intake, endocrine function?
    hypothalamus
  76. The hypothalamus acts via the ______. What is another name for it?
    pituitary; hypophysis
  77. What "gray matter" area includes the pineal gland and helps with sleep-wake cycles?
    epithalamus
  78. What is the stalk connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
    infundibulum
  79. What is the "crossing over" of vision?
    optic chiasma
  80. What "nucleus" is in charge of day & night cycling?
    suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
  81. What are some things that the thalamic nuclei are in charge of?
    • memory and emotion
    • audition
    • somesthetic output
    • gustation (taste)
    • limbic system
    • relay of visual and auditory
  82. What are some things that the hypothalamic nuclei are in charge of?
    • thirst
    • hot or not
    • appetite
    • rage
    • memory
    • oxytocin
    • pain control
    • sex drive
    • biological clock
  83. What part of the brain is the "old brain" and in charge of automatic behaviors necessary for survival?
    brain stem
  84. What 3 things does the brain stem consist of?
    • midbrain
    • pons (pathways b/w brain and spinal cord)
    • medulla oblongata (cardiac and resp. rate)
  85. Where do nerves output to?
    the CNS

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