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What are the 3 parts of the triune brain?
- reptilian (old)
- paleomammalian (not as old)
- neomammalian (new)
the closer to the spinal cord, the ____ the brain
nervous tissue comes from the _____
What is another name for forebrain?
What is another name for midbrain?
What is another name for the hindbrain?
The cerebrum, cortex hemispheres, and diencephalon are involved in the ____.
The brain stem stem (midbrain) is involved in the ____.
The brain stem (pons, medulla) and cerebellum are involved in the ____.
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
- medulla (oblongata)
The folds of the brain begin at _____ weeks and start to get ___ and ___.
26; gyri & sulci
Why does the brain have folds?
limiting size; need to fold over because we have all the excess cell bodies
Where is the third ventricle located?
What are the two "matters" of the brain?
gray & white
What makes the white matter white?
In the spinal cord, where is the gray matter.
deep inside (it must be protected)
What is located deep in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
cell bodies of neurons
In which two regions of the brain is the nuclei stretched out to other places?
- brain stem
- cerebellum (in cerebellum they are farther from center)
The four ventricles are filled with what?
CSF is a derivative of what?
Ventricles are lined with what cells?
What shape are the left and right (1&2) lateral ventricles? Where are they located? What separates them?
- They are C-shaped.
- They lie deep within the cerebral hemispheres.
- Separated by septum pellucidum.
The third ventricle lies within the ______ and communicates with the lateral ventricles via two ________.
- interventricular foramina
Where does the fourth ventricle lie? How does it communicate with the third ventricle?
- lies in the hindbrain (rhombencephalon).
- the cerebral aqueduct
What is the brain floating in?
What are the ridges in the brain called? The grooves?
- gyrus/gyri (ridges/bumps)
- sulcus/sulci (grooves/shallow fissures)
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated along the midline by what?
What separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum?
transverse cerebral fissure
What are the four lobes of the brain? What are their associations?
- frontal - thinking
- parietal - sensory & motor
- temporal - taste, hearing, smell
- occipital - vision
What is the cortex of the brain that cannot be seen on the surface?
What are the two regions that lie beside the central sulcus?
- primary motor area
- primary somatosensory cortex
What is white matter?
communication fibers between axons
Rostral is the direction towards the ____.
Caudal is the direction towards the _____.
Which cortex allows for the continuous control of skilled movement?
Primary motor cortex
Which cortex is the region controlling learned motor skills and integrating them with other things going on?
What is a motor speech area (controls muscles involved in speech production)?
What part of the cerebral cortex controls eye movement?
frontal eye field
What cortex allows spatial discrimination and ability to detect the location of the stimulus? (i.e. feeling the air on your skin)
What cortex integrates sensory information and produces understanding of the stimulus being felt?
somatosensory association cortex
Which two areas (cortex) allow the reception and interpretation of visual stimuli? Where are these areas located in the brain?
- primary visual cortex & visual association area
- located in the occipital lobe
Which two areas (cortex) allow the detection of the properties and contextual recognition of sound? Where are these areas located in the brain?
- primary auditory cortex & auditory association area
- located in the temporal lobes
Which cortex allows for the detection of odors? Where is this cortex located in the brain?
- primary olfactory cortex
- located in temporal lobe
Which cortex allows for the detection of balance?
Which cortex is involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality; closely linked to the limbic (motion) system?
What are the language areas involved in comprehension and articulation?
- Wernicke's area
- Broca's area
- the lateral prefrontal cortex
- lateral & ventral parts of the temporal lobe
What is the name of an area that receives input from all sensory area, integrating signals into a single thought?
general interpretation area
What area is involved in conscious visceral sensation?
visceral association area
Is lateralization about symmetry or asymmetry?
What is it called when each cerebral hemisphere has unique abilities not shared with the other half?
Which hemisphere dominates language, math, and logic?
Which hemisphere dominates visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, and artistic skills?
______'s area is involved in reading whereas _____'s area is involved in motor speech.
Wernicke's and Broca's
What is responsible for communication between cerebral areas and the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers?
cerebral white matter
Consists of a group of subcortical nuclei, which play a role in motor control and regulating attention and cognition.
What are the "numbered" areas of the brain?
The man figure that demonstrates the relative number of neurons used for certain senses.
The tracts that connect the left and right brain reside in the _____.
What is the starred structure?
What is the starred structure?
What is this representing?
What is the term associated with the motor homunculi?
What are the fibers that are on the same side, and they don't cross over to the other side of the brain?
What are the fibers that run north to south (nostral to caudal)?
What fibers cross over within the brain (i.e. corpus collosum)
The putamen and globus pallidus are the anatomical structures of what?
lentiform nucleus (of the basal nuclei)
What are the fibers that cross from right over left (or left over to right) and form triangles?
decussation of pyramids
Pyramidal is ____ output.
What is one lateral to another lateral?
What is another name for basal nuclei?
What is the functional, learning center of the brain (almond-shaped)?
What is the black substance located inside midbrain? What does it secrete?
substantia nigra; it secretes DA
What are the 3 gray matter areas?
Which "gray matter" plays a key role in mediating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, and memory?
Which "gray matter" is the control center of the body, regulating ANS activity such as emotional response, body temp, food intake, endocrine function?
The hypothalamus acts via the ______. What is another name for it?
What "gray matter" area includes the pineal gland and helps with sleep-wake cycles?
What is the stalk connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
What is the "crossing over" of vision?
What "nucleus" is in charge of day & night cycling?
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
What are some things that the thalamic nuclei are in charge of?
- memory and emotion
- somesthetic output
- gustation (taste)
- limbic system
- relay of visual and auditory
What are some things that the hypothalamic nuclei are in charge of?
- hot or not
- pain control
- sex drive
- biological clock
What part of the brain is the "old brain" and in charge of automatic behaviors necessary for survival?
What 3 things does the brain stem consist of?
- pons (pathways b/w brain and spinal cord)
- medulla oblongata (cardiac and resp. rate)
Where do nerves output to?