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Presidents: John Quincy Adams
- Secretary of State under James Monroe; 6th President of the United States.
- Candidate in election of 1824, from the north east, industrial, experienced diplomat, favored high tariffs , national bank, and internal improvement federalists
Presidents: Andrew Jackson
7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency.
Presidents: Martin van Buren
8th president of the USA, elected in 1836-Won election easily with Jackson's endorsement-Thought presidency was more of an honor than a responsibility and was incapable of dealing with issues-Collapsed in the economic panics of 1837 and 1839
War of 1812
One of America's worst fought wars because of widespread disunity.
American Nationalism: Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper (The Leather stocking Tales which include The Last of the Monicans)
American Nationalism: Irving
Washington Irving (Rumpelstiltskin, The Knickerbocker, Tales such as the Legend of Sleepy Hollow.)
Tariff of 1816
Put a 20% - 25% tariff on dutiable imports. It was not high enough but a good start.
Tariff of 1824
Congress increased the general tariff from 23% to 37%.
Tariff of 1828
- Jacksonians (who disliked tariffs)
- schemed to drive up duties to as high as 45% while imposing heavy
- tariffs on raw materials like wool, so that even New England, where the
- tariff was needed, would vote the bill down and give Adams another
- political black eye.
Tariff of 1832
- In response to the anger at the “Tariff of Abominations,”
- passed the Tariff of 1832, which did away with the worst parts of the
- Tariff of 1828, such as lowering the tariff down to 35%, a reduction of
- 10%, but many southerners still hated it.
- Henry Clay's 3 pronged system to promote industry:
- A strong Banking System
- A protective tariff
- Roads and Canals
- 1. Missouri would be admitted as a slave state
- 2. Maine would be a free state
- 3. All new states north of the 36 30 line would be free, new states southward would be slave states.
Through the westward movement of Indians opened up lands to the west for Americans to settle.
Cohens vs Virgina, 1821
Supreme courts could review state court descions.
Gibbons vs Ogden,1824
Only Congress can control interstate trade.
Fletcher vs Peck, 1810
States can't break a contract
Darthmouth College vs Woodward, 1819
Constitution protected contracts.
Rulings gave the Supreme Court its powers and greatly strengthened the federal government.
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Corrupt Bargain of 1824
A political scandal that arose when the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break a deadlock. Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State.
The idea of spreading political power to the people and ensuring majority rule as well as supporting the common man.
Five Civilized Tribes
- The Cherokees, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the
- Seminoles were known as the “Five Civilized Tribes.”
Burea of Indian Affairs
- the Bureau of Indian
- Affairs was established in 1836 to deal with Indians.
Escaped to the Everglades in Florida and still live there today.
Indian Removal Act
Congress ordered all Indians to move westward into "Indian Territory" in a movement that became known as the Trail of Tears.
Worcester v. Georgia
The Cherokee nation sued the US government for the Indian Removal Act, and chief justice John Marshall ruled in favor of the Indians. Jackson continued enforcing the act.
The US Bank was under a 20 year charter, and was favored mainly by the northern bankers and merchants but not by farmers and westerners. Clay and Webster pushed for an early recharter but Jackson vetoed it due to his hatred for the two men. He killed the bank and ordered his Secretary of Treasury to remove all of the specie and put it in his "pet banks".
After the Bank War there was a depression that was inherited by Martin van Buren.
- Stephen Austin had made an agreement
- with the Mexican government to bring about 300 families into a huge
- tract of granted land to settle.
- The stipulations were: (1) they must become Mexican
- citizens, (2)
- they must become Catholic, and (3) no slavery allowed. These
- stipulations were largely ignored by the new settlers.
- Supporters of Andrew Jackson: including frontier workers, and farmers.
- oGlorified the
- liberty of the individual.
- oClung to states’
- rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs.
- Mostly morehumble, poorer folk.
- Generally fromthe South and West.
- Opposing party to Jackson and Democrats, led by Clay and Webster
- oTrumpeted the
- natural harmony of society and the value of community.Berated leaders
- whose appeals and self-interest fostered conflict among individuals. Favored a renewed
- national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and
- moral reforms.
- Mostly more aristocratic and wealthier.
- Generally from the East.
Things in Common
- Based on the people
- Commanded loyalties from all kinds of people.
Nullies who thought states should be able to nullify federal laws.