Chemical Communication and Behavior

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Author:
juliemarie
ID:
243525
Filename:
Chemical Communication and Behavior
Updated:
2013-10-29 08:08:05
Tags:
Neuro SLP
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Description:
Description of chemical communication within the body
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  1. What are the four different types of communication patterns?
    • Point to point communication
    • Hormonal communication
    • ANS communication
    • Diffuse modulatory system communication
  2. The hypothalamus is the integrating center for:
    It controls:
    • Visceral and hormonal functions
    • Circadian rhythms, blood pressure, some emotion
  3. The ________ ______ is connected to the hypothalamus by the _____ ______. The hypothalamus controls release of hormones from ________ _______
    • pituitary gland 
    • pituitary stalk
    • pituitary gland
  4. There are two pathways/parts of the pituitary:
    What cells do each have?
    What is each pathway/parts function?
    • Posterior & Anterior
    • Poster: Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (Largest in hypothalamus)
    • Anterior: Parvocellular neurosecretory cells
    • Posterior:cells release neurohormone into capillaries in posterior lobe (Vassopressine/Oxytocin)
    • Anterior: A variety of neurohormones that regulate hormones from other glands (e.g. thyroid), hormones transport through hypothalami-pituatary portal system through axons, bind to receptors (inhibit or excite).
  5. The autonomic nervous system is ______/_______ and we are largely ________ to its functions. It is controlled by the ________ and _________. Homeostasis is a dynamic balance between _________ and _________, which are __________ to each other
    • Reflexive/automatic
    • oblivious
    • hypothalamus 
    • medulla
    • parasympathetic
    • sympathetic
    • antagonistic
  6. What is one large difference between the somatic motor system and the ANS?
    • ANS is a 2-neuron system (preganglion, ganglion, postganglion)
    • and SMS is a 1-neuron system
  7. The preganglionic Neurotransmitter, ____ binds to ______ receptor, which allows ____ channel to open, causing ________. The preganglionic neurons originates from the ______ and _____ regions of the spine. It's axon projects through the ventral root and synapses onto postganglionic neurons.
    • ACh 
    • Nicotinic
    • NA+
    • depolarization 
    • thoracic 
    • lumbar
  8. Hyperpolarization
    Postganglionic neurotransmitter, ____ binds to __________ receptor, this activates the g-protein and causes a series of chemical events, it opens channels and ___ leaves the cell, causing _________ of the neuron. 

    Depolarization
    The NT ___________ binds to the _______-_________ receptor and also activates the g-protein and causes _________. Postganglionic neurons originate from the ______ and ______ region of SC, and they are closer to their target innervation.
    • ACh
    • Muscarinic 
    • K+
    • hyperpolarization
    • norepinephrine 
    • Beta1-Adrenergic 
    • depolarization
    • medulla 
    • sacral
  9. There are two divisions of the ANS:
    • Sympathetic
    • Parasympathetic
  10. The Sympathetic Division of the ANS 
    What is the order of events?
    What is its purpose?
    • CNS - preganglionic neuron - sympathetic chain - binds to Nicotin receptor - release ACh - Postganlionic neuron - release of norepinephrine  onto receptor (Beta or Alpha) - depolarization 
    • This division uses energy in times when the body needs to be in a heightened state (fight or flight condition)
  11. Parasympathetic Division of the ANS
    What is the order of events?
    What is the purpose?
    • CNS - preganglionic neuron - release of ACh onto nicotinic receptor - postganglionic neuron - Release of ACh onto Muscarinic receptor 
    • This division maintains a resting condition in which energy is conserved
  12. Diffuse modulatory systems
    What are they?
    What are some examples of neurotransmitters used?
    Where do they originate?
    How much might they increase?
    Where are the neurotransmitters released?
    • Collections of neurons that project onto large areas of the brain and SC
    • Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, Acetylcholine 
    • Brainstem - reticular formation
    • from 1,500 to 100,000
    • Extracellular fluid

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