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Curriculum based measurement (CBM)
A system of progress monitoring that evaluates performance frequently by collecting data directly on academic subjects being taught drawn from probes selected from across the curriculum
strategic instruction model (SIM)
Instructional methods to help secondary students read, comprehend, and study better by helping them organize and collect info strategically. Supplemental for high school students w/ learning disabilities
a system of progress monitoring; evaluates learning of discrete skills frequently, often daily. Analyzes behavior to evaluate student performance.
testing all students to identify those in need of assistance or more intensive instruction. (sometime in fall in grade between kindergarten and fourth)
Response to Intervention (RIT)
Multi-tiered prereferral method of increasingly intensive interventions; used to identify "non-responders" or students w/ disabilities
* filters students through many stages of learning opportunities
ability to perceive and interpret social situations, generate appropriate social responses, and interact with others
Resistant to treatment
Defining characteristics of learning disabilities validated methods typically applied in gen ed are not effective to cause sufficient learning.
despite having normal intelligence, students with LD's do not achieve academically like classmates w/o disabilities
can reflect deficits in the ability to process/ remember information
IQ/ Achievement discrepancy
old criterion required for LD identification. 2 year difference between potential/ expected performance (based on score of an IQ test) and a score from achievement test.
3 types of thinking
negative self-explanations about the reasons for one's failure.
ex. I'm just stupid, etc.
Highly successful businessman who is very open about his learning disability and has started Schwab learning to help families of others w/ disabilities
A tactic of the SIM that previews lectures and provides organizing structures to acquaint students w/ the content, its organization, and importance before the lesson
learning strategy that promotes remembering info by associating the first letters of items in a list w/ a word, sentence, or picture
the breaking down of a task into small sequential steps that are taught to the students to accomplish a task
a special education direct service, not a related service, that teaches physical education
teaching skills needed for daily living (holding a job, have friends, traveling and shit)
making decisions, choosing preferences, and exercising self-advocacy needed for independent living
means of measuring the progress of students who do not participate in the general education curriculum
systems of support
a network of supports everyone develops to function optimally in life
performance of everyday life skills expected of adults
- 1. conceptual: reading and writing, language
- 2. social: interpersonal, obeys laws, follow rules
- 3. practical: life skills, safety, self-help
a program that pairs college students w/ people w/ intellectual disabilities to build relationships, friendships, and opportunities for support
project eye to eye
a mentoring program in which college students w/ LD/ ADHD work with public school students w. LD/ADHD
higher-order cognitive functions that influence the ability to plan, self-regulate, and engage in goal-directed behavior
includes many techniques, used individually or in combinations by the individual, to modify behavior or academic performance
4 categories of self-management
keeping a record of one's own performance
self-instruction or self-talk
self-induced statements to assist in self-regulation
determining desired behavior and its criterion (determining the level of expected performance for a task)
awarding self-selected reinforcements or rewards to oneself contingent on achieving criterion (receiving rewards for accomplishments)
students with learning disabilities have decreased positive social interactions
- antisocial behaviors increase
- often view themselves as social failures and engage in solitary behaviors (playing computer games, watching tv; teachers should demonstrate to students how to behave socially)
side effects: reduction in appetite, probs w/ sleeping, jitteriness, dizziness
teachers need to give feedback to parents to determine dosage
ADA law that insists buildings have fewer obstacles for physically disable peeps
teaching universal design will make other students sensitive
a term used to describe the status of individuals with health disabilities
high tech devices
computers that control environment, ventilators, or software allowing voice output
low tech devices
holders for books, rubber bands around pencils to make easier to hold
Functional assessment based interventions
highly individualized plans based on the reasons why problem behaviors occur w/ a goal of decreasing undesirable behaviors that allow students to get their needs met in a more appropriate way
signals of risk
- 1. problem behaviors are identifiable by age 3 and often stable by age 8
- 2. overt and covert antisocial activities are becoming behavior patterns
- 3. problems happen across setting (home, school, etc.)
- 4. child is both overactive and inattentive
- 5. extreme aggression is frequent
functional behavioral assessments
a process in which interviews, observations, and environmental manipulations are conducted to determine "why" certain behaviors occur
positive behavior support
a 3-tiered model of support w/ progressively more intensive levels of intervention
- Primary- schoolwide
- Secondary- more focused, often small groups
- Tertiary- highly focused, individualized
more encounter w/ law; behavior i more hostile and violent, but there has been some decline in juvenile crimes in recent years.
bully proofing your school
involves 3 domains:
- 1. increasing awareness of bullying problems
- 2. providing explicit instruction in how to protect yourself
- 3. developing a positive school climate
steps to respect
reduce bullying and to develop prosocial relationships w/ peers within the context of a school-based program
bullying prevention program
focuses on restructuring the school environment both to decrease the opportunities to engage in bullying and to reduce the negative social consequences of bullying (reduce and prevent)
excluded behavior problems
socially maladjusted and those w/ conduct disorders and are not eligible for SPED services under the label of emotional disturbance in the IDEA 04' definition
conditions causing painful uneasiness, emotional tension, or emotional confusion
behaviors directed towards others (aggressive)
behaviors directed inwards (withdrawn, anxious, depressed)
a psychiatric term describing the externalizing, acting-out of behaviors (aggression, deceitfulness or theft, serious violations of rules, or is often absent from school beginning before age 13)
understanding and mastering knowledge and skills through observation and without instruction
making available ordinary patterns of life and conditions of everyday living
a worldwide movement of over 100 years ago that sought to protect society from false threats of people who are different
"people should be removed from society and their population controlled"
managing seizures at school
- 1. absence seizure
- 2. simple partial seizure
- 3. Complex partial seizure
- 4. generalized tonic-clonic seizure
cognitive-behavioral therapy method
trains children to use self-regulation techniques such as self-evaluation, self-correction, and self-talk. This method of treatment has been shown to be effective, w/ a specific focus on improving academic skill.
What is one way for you as a teacher to help find students w/ a learning disability?
response to intervention
Based off the Federal government's definition of learning disabilities is economic disadvantage covered? What about dyslexia?
- Economic disadvantage is no
- Dyslexia is yes
As a teacher, what can you do in order to help your students w/ ADHD have a better learning environment?
Teachers can make assignments interesting, individualized when possible, and relevant to student's backgrounds and interests.
What is the focus of the cognitive-behavioral therapy method?
The cognitive-behavioral therapy method trains children to use self-regulation techniques such as self-evaluation, self-correction and self-talk.This method of treatment has been shown to be effective, with a specific focus on improving academic skill
Why should teachers get involved as much as they can concerning a student's EBD?
Knowing as much as you can about the students EBD will help you as a teacher know what extra lengths you need to take in making sure they can obtain as much as possible.
How might EBD's have an impact in your classroom?
EBD’s can sometimes cause disruptions in the classroom resulting in not only loss of focus and learning to the pertaining student, but the class as a whole.
Name 2 categories of physical disabilities?
- neuromotor impairments
- muscular/ skeletal conditions
- Infectious diseases
- chronic illness
List one way to modify the classroom's physical environment?
- Apply features of universal design
- improve classroom traffic patterns
What are the 2 types of hearing loss?
What is one way a teacher can accommodate a student w/ a hearing impairment?
Face student when speaking
Why is the concept of normalization important as a teacher to use in the classroom?
Normalization is important as a teacher because it helps raise the students' self esteem because they are not singled out as different as often. It impacts their learning as well, because if they are able to learn in the same ways as the other students, the student is less-likely to get frustrated and give up.
What are strategies to use as a teacher in order to help students with intellectual disabilities?
Teachers have a variety of strategies that they can use in order to help students with intellectual disabilities. They can work with parents and other members of the students' IEP teams to help the student, they can find out the students' strengths and try to utilize them in the classroom, and they can break new tasks into smaller steps to help the students understand them better. Another strategy that is important to remember is to be as concrete in instruction as possible, and to try to demonstrate what you mean when explaining something instead of just giving verbal directions.
What IDEA '04 says about
transition and functional skills
- focus on skills to help outside of school
- in addition to instruction and related service, the individually determined process may include
- community experiences
- employment objectives
- other post school living skills
- acquisition of daily living skills
- functional vocational evaluation
What IDEA says about Eligibility and educational significance
(physical and health disabilities)
- to qualify for services under the category of orthopedic impairment
- the student must have severe orthopedic impairment and
- the impairment must adversely affect educational performance
What IDEA says about functional behavioral assessment
- students who act up may receive a functional behavioral assessment
- and behavioral intervention services and modifications (including a behavioral intervention plan), if appropriate
in cases of manifestation determination, the IEP team must conduct a functional behavior assessment and intervention plan
What IDEA says about students with ADHD
- are not guaranteed eligibility for special education or related services, even with medical diagnosis and medication prescriptions are specifically called out under the "other health impairments" category
- may also be eligible for services under other categories
- may receive special education services if the conditions adversely affects educational performance
what IDEA says about eligibility for learning disabilities
- determining eligibility for the category of learning disability, a local educational agency
- is not required to consider whether a child shows a discrepancy between school achievement and intellectual ability
- may include documentation on the child's response to scientific, research based intervention as part of the formal evaluation procedures