bio 119 text IV

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mattchitown
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243559
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bio 119 text IV
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2013-10-29 11:25:08
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micro
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micro test IV
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  1. why do we need to control the growth of microbes outside our body?
    to prevent food spoilage, to prevent new infections inside our body
  2. physical or chemical method that kills or removes ALL microbes in/on inanimate object
    sterilization
  3. Is it possible to sterilize living organisms
    no
  4. standard methods dont kill this microbe
    prions
  5. an environment or procedure (aseptic technique) free of pathogens
    aseptic
  6. Use of Physical or Chemical agents called Disinfectants to Kill or Inhibit VEGETATIVE pathogens on Inanimate objects
    disinfection
  7. Use of Chemical agents called Antiseptics to Kill or Inhibit VEGETATIVE pathogens               on Body
    antisepsis
  8. Neither Disinfectants nor Antiseptics kill
    spores
  9. Many Disinfectants are just Antiseptics that are more concentrated or applied for
    longer
  10. Reduces pathogens to meet public health standards, ex: restrooms, public toilets
    sanitzation
  11. Type of Disinfection or Antisepsis     
    using Physical Scrubbing with or without chemicals, ex: hand washing, alcohol swabbing
    degerming
  12. bacteriocides kill bacteria
    Fungicides kill fungi
    Virucides
    kill viruses
    Sporicides kill all = sterilize
    cide, idal
  13. Will inhibit growth temporarily

    Example: refrigeration
    stasis, static
  14. reduction in the number of microorganisms and viruses, particularly potential pathogens, on living tissue ex: iodine, alochol
    antisepsis
  15. refers to an environment or procedure free of pathogenic contaminants ex: prep of surgical field, flame sterilization of lab equipment
    aseptic
  16. use of heat to destroy pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages, ex: milk and juice
    pasteurization
  17. suffixes that indicate destruction of a type of microbe
    cide, cidal
  18. suffixes indicating inhibition, but not complete destruction, of a type of microbe
    stasis, static
  19. permanent loss of reproduction
    microbial death
  20. can be used to measure efficacy of an antimicrobial agent
    microbial death rate
  21. What % of culture dies per
    time period?
    Cells in a culture die at a constant rate           for a particular microbe & set of conditions
  22. what are the four general targets of antimicrobial agents
    cell wall, cell membrane, RNA/DNA, denature protiens
  23. what is the most resistant microbe and the most susceptible
    prion, enveloped viruses
  24. the higher the load(number of microbes) the
    longer it takes to destroy them
  25. chemical disinfectants generally work best at
    higher temp
  26. effect efficacy of heat and chemicals
    pH levels
  27. organic matter( rats, feces, vomit, blood, saliva, biofilm secretion) can inhibit some what
    antimicrobial agents
  28. for evaluating effectiveness of Disinfectants & Antiseptics
    in use test
  29. two main types of microbial control
    chemical, physical
  30. heat
    can sterlize
  31. denatures proteins, disrupts membranes, cell walls, nucleic acids
    heat/sterilize
  32. shortest time to to sterilize liquids at a specific temp
    thermal death time (TDT)
  33. lowest temp to sterilize a liquid in 10 min
    thermal death point
  34. time to kill 90% of microbe population at a particular
    Decimal reduction time (D)
  35. used to measure effectivness of heat sterilization
    Decimal reduction time (D)
  36. moist heat more effective at same temp than
    dry heat
  37. dry heat kills by:
    • dehydration(H20 necessary for metabolism), incineration(reduces to ashes and gas)
  38. dry heat also kills by
    denaturing proteins, oxidizes molecules
  39. denaturing enzymes stops
    metablosim
  40. dry heat makes enzymes
    lose 3D structure and or/active site
  41. 100 degrees celsius, not spororcidial, drinking water, baby materials, food untensils
    boiling water
  42. 121 degrees C, psi 15, yes sporocidial, heat and moisture resistant materials
    autoclave steam w/pressure
  43. not sporocidial, fresh beverage, milk, juice, beer, wine
    pasteurization
  44. 140 degrees C, most efficient, is sporocidial, can store at room temp indefinitely
    ultra high temp sterilization
  45. 171 degrees C/340 for 1 hour, is sporoicidal, glassware, metals, powders, oils
    ovens
  46. great than a 1000 degrees C, is sporoicidal, metals, glass, needles, dressings, animal carcasses
    incineration
  47. bacteriostatic only
    cold
  48. 0-7 degrees C, not sporoicidal, slows metabolism, faculative psychrophile can grow in this environment(listeria, yersinia)
    refrigeration
  49. below 0 degrees C, not sporocidial, no water available
    freezing
  50. dehydration by sun, oven, not sporocidial, preserve fruit, beans, grains, nuts, peas, yeast
    desiccation
  51. freezing in liquid N or dry ice, dehydration by sublimation, not sporocidial, preserve food and microbes, prevents ice crystals from damaging cells
    lyophilization(freeze drying)
  52. hypertonic solutions of sugar or salt, cells dehydrate, honey, jerky, jams, jellies, salted fish, pickels
    osmotic pressure
  53. not microbicidial, fluid passed through membrane filer w/pores that exclude microbes and particulates, heat sensitive liquids: serum, vaccines, enzymes, eye solutions, liquid vitamins, media, air: surgical masks, HEPA filiters, can sterilize/sporocidial
    membrane filitration
  54. ejects orbital electrons from atom
    ionization
  55. sporocidial, protein damage, DNA mutations, chemical changes in organelles, produces toxic substances, used in: heat/chemical sensitive materials, food, water, medical supplies: vaccines, instruments, gloves, heart valves for grafting, us mail
    cathode-ray, gamma-ray, x-ray
  56. what method of handling microbes prevents infection of tissues
    aseptic technique
  57. Which molecule looks like a substrate and sits in the active site of an enzyme?
    structural analog
  58. Which antimicrobial agent inhibits DNA gyrase?
    fluoroquinolone
  59. _________ are beneficial microbes that compete with pathogens for resources.
    probiotics
  60. an adaptive response where the population contains higher numbers of microbes that are not killed by the drug.
    Drug resistance
  61. Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to
    gamma and x-rays
  62. A prescription of two drugs can show synergism in their effect against microbes
    microbial drug resistance
  63. Which is effective against spores?
    formaldehyde
  64. Which antimicrobial agent is the best hope for combating the avian flu virus?
    Tamiflu (oseltamivir)
  65. Pathogen A is more
    resistant to an tetracycline disc on a Kirby-Bauer diffusion susceptibility
    plate compared to pathogen B.  Pathogen A will have a(n) ___________ zone
    of inhibition compared to pathogen B.
    smaller
  66. what affects dissinfection
    • the pH
    • the concentration of agent and time applied
    • the type of microbe present
    • the presence of organic matter
  67. kills microbes by producing toxic free radicals
    hydrogen peroxide
  68. gaseous chemosterilant used in chemiclave
    ethylene oxide
  69. used to disinfect drains, cesspools, and animal quarters
    phenolics
  70. heavy metal toxic to humans in minute amounts
    mercury
  71. UV 260 nm, excites, not ejects orbital electrons from atom
    non-ionizing radiation
  72. sporocidial or microbistatic, pyrimidine dimers, abnormal replication and transcription, in air: food prep, hospitals, schools, dental offices, liquid: water, juice, sewage treatment
    non-ionizing radiation
  73. characteristics of a good germicide
    a chemical agent that destroys pathogens in general
  74. rapid action and long lasting, soluble in h20 and alochol(stable), kills variety of microbes but non-toxic to humans or animals, resists inactivation by organic matter, non-corrosive or non-staining, inexpensive and avaiable
    good germicide
  75. Kills variety microbes but non-toxic to humans or animals
    selective toxicty
  76. removal of prions on medical instruments, can sterilize
    enzymes
  77. disinfectants and treatment of infectious diseases
    antimicrobials
  78. sterilization of heat and water sensitive objects, can sterilize
    gaseous agents(ethylene oxide, propylene oxide)
  79. soaps, degerming, detergents, antiseptic
    surfcants
  80. chemically altered phenol
    phenolics
  81. denatures proteins and disrupts cell membranes, original surgical antiseptic
    phenol
  82. denature proteins and disrupts cell membranes, disinfectants, antiseptics, and as a solvent in tinctures
    alochols
  83. presumably denatures proteins, disinfectants, antiseptics, water purification
    halogens
  84. •Denatures proteins (requires H20, so 70 - 90% alcohol better than 100%), Biodegradable, doesn’t increase bacterial resistance, Not good for bacterial endospores, fungal spores, non-enveloped viruses, Skin antiseptic Disinfectant for electrodes, face masks, thermometers
    alochols
  85. halogens
    do not sterilize
  86. Antiseptic
    on skin before surgery, treat burns

    Disinfectant for plastics, rubber,
    cutting blades, thermometers
    iodine
  87. •Disinfection drinking water,
    pools, sewage, food equipment
    chlorine
  88. halgoens
    denature proteins
  89. Disinfection
    of Hot tubs, pools, cooling towers
    bromine
  90. •Disrupts
    metabolism in dental biofilms
    flourine
  91. surfacants
    no sterilization
  92. lower surface tension of water to make it a better solvent
    surfacants
  93. •Surrounds grease & oils so can be
    washed away
    soaps
  94. •Antimicrobial
    because disrupts membranes

    •Disinfect &
    sanitize floors, restrooms, eating utensils, clothing, food-processing
    equipment

    •Colorless, tasteless & mostly
    harmless to humans

    •Inhibited by organics, soaps
    Quaternary ammonium Detergents
  95. heavy metals
    no sterlize
  96. •Surgical dressings, burn creams

    •Incorporated into plastics or steel
    for toilet seats, catheters, stethoscopes, refrigerator doors
    silver
  97. •Interferes w/chlorophyll in algae

    •Pools, fish tanks, water storage,
    reservoirs
    copper
  98. oxidizing agents
    can sterlize
  99. •Effective against anaerobes

    •Surfaces,
    invasive instruments, food packaging

    •Catalase
    released from damaged human cells breaks it down into water & O2
    gas
    hydrogen peroxide
  100. •Surfaces, food & medical
    equipment

    •Not
    affected by organics, no toxic residue
    peracetic acid
  101. aldehydes
    can sterilize
  102. Denatures proteins, inactivates nucleic acids
    aldehydes
  103. •Medical & dental instruments

    •More effective, expensive & less
    irritating than formaldehyde
    glutaraldeyde 2% liquid
  104. sterilant for instruments, dialysis machinesIn embalming fluidIrritates mucous membranes; carcinogenic
    Formaldehyde

    37% in H2O = formalin
  105. gaseous ethylene oxide
    can sterilize
  106. Penetrate paper/plastic, diffuse into cracks

    •Denature Proteins & DNA
    gaseous ethylene oxide
  107. Hospital & Dental instruments, NASA spacecraft, heart valves, plastics, pillows, mattresses Sugar, dried foods, drugs
    gaseous ethylene oxide
  108. •Use in Chemiclave because can be explosive,
    poisonous – need to flush with air
    ethylene oxide
  109. gaseous halogen
    can sterilize
  110. Denature proteins by disrupting S-S bridges & H bonds
    gaseous halogen
  111. gas used to sterilize after 2001 anthrax spores mailed to U.S. Senate offices
    chlorine dioxide
  112. enzymes
    can sterilize
  113. Tears, saliva: digests peptidoglycan cell wallCheese & wine making, sterilizing medical equipment
    lysozyme
  114. Removes prions on medical instruments
    prionzyme
  115. Generic term for drugs that act against disease
    Chemotherapeutic agents
  116. Drugs that treat infectious disease (caused by microbial pathogens)
    antimicrobials
  117. Antimicrobials naturally produced by a microbe to destroy another microbe
    antibiotics
  118. Chemically altered antibiotics
    Semisynthetics
  119. Completely synthesized in a lab
    Synthetics
  120. penicillium, cephalosporium
    fungi genera
  121. bacillus, strepomyces
    bacteria genera
  122. As first proposed by Ehrlich’s “Magic Bullet”,successful drugs must have
    selective toxicty
  123. must be more toxic to pathogen than to host
    drug
  124. are tough to treat because they are animals
    helminths
  125. Hardest to get Selective Toxicity for viruses because they use our
    enzymes
  126. inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    mechanism of action of antimicrobial drug
  127. inhibition of pathogen's attachment to, or recognition of host
    mechanism of action of antimicrobial drug
  128. inhibition of DNA/RNA synthesis
    mechanism of action of antimicrobial drug
  129. inhibition of metabolic pathway
    mechanism of action of antimicrobial drug
  130. disruption of cytoplasmic membrane
    mechanism of action of antimicrobial drug
  131. inhibition of protein synthesis
    mechanism of action of antimicrobial drug
  132. Are Antibiotics and Semisynthetics that inhibit synthesis of new bacterial cell walls
    Beta-lactam drugs
  133. Some bacteria have Beta-lactamases =
    Penicillinases
  134. Are enzymes that destroy Beta-lactam ring so drug loses
    effectiveness
  135. Bind to & inhibit enzymes that cross-link NAMs with peptide bridges in new peptidoglycan
    beta-lactam drugs
  136. Only effective on growing or reproducing bacteria
    beta-lactam drugs
  137. Cells die due to effects of osmotic pressure when walls weakened; more effective on Gram (+)
    beta-lactam drugs
  138. are Antibiotics & Semisynthetics
    Penicillin's
  139. drawbacks to Penicillins
    allergies , microbial resistance
  140. Discovered as antibiotic
    Most are now semisynthetic
    Cephalosporin's
  141. Majority (~1/3) of all antibiotics administered
    Injected into muscle or vein because
    absorbed poorly when taken orally
    Resistant to many penicillinases
    Can cross blood-brain barrier
    cephalosporins
  142. Directly interfere w/peptide cross bridges between NAMs in Gram(+)
    For penicillin allergic patients
    For  MRSA = methicillin resistant S.aureus
    Can be toxic to kidneys
    Vancomycin
  143. Blocks transport of NAG & NAMs from cytoplasm
    Major ingredient (with polymyxin
    & neomycin) in Neosporin,         
    Triple antibiotic ointments
    bacitracin
  144. Change shape of 30S subunit or block tRNA docking site
    Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Neomycin
    Aminoglycosides
  145. Block tRNA docking site
    Tetracyclines
  146. Prokaryotes
    & Mitochondria have
    70S Ribosomes
  147. Eukaryotes have 80S, so can get some
    selective toxicty
  148. Antibacterial
    good against G(-)
    Used topically
    Toxic to kidneys
    Polymyxin
  149. Antifungal
    Binds to ergosterol
    Polyene amphotericin B
  150. Antifungal
    Inhibit
    synthesis of ergosterol
    azoles
  151. inhibit enzymes in the Folic Acid Synthesis pathway
    Sulfonamide & Trimethoprim
  152. (Sulfa drugs) are synthetic &                           the 1st modern antimicrobial – 1935
    Sulfonamides
  153. Sulfonamide & Trimethoprim are
    structural analogs
  154. the more drug in the body, the fewer normal substrates are processed by the enzyme
    competitive inhibition
  155. Bacteria is then inhibited because it lacks
    folic acid
  156. Inhibit DNA Gyrase, used for coiling/uncoiling replicating DNA
    Fluoroquinolones
  157. Plasmodium causes
    malaria
  158. Plasmodium eats
    hemoglobin
  159.  makes toxic hemes as waste; needs to detoxify heme to survive
    plasmodium (hemoglobin)
  160. Inhibits heme detoxification & Ca2+ transport
    Artemisinin
  161. Inhibits heme detoxification raises pH in food vacuoles, interfere w/ETC, increase Oxygen free radicals
    possible mode of action for quinolines
  162. uses Reverse Transcriptase enzyme (humans don’t have it) to make dsDNA from ssRNA
    HIV
  163. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors stop this enzyme from functioning
    NON-nucleoside
  164. used against HIV Reverse transcriptase
    AZT (Azidothymine)
  165. used against Herpes
    Valtrex (Valacyclovir)
  166. Nucleotide/nucleoside analogs are nonfunctional
    structural analogs of nucelotides
  167. When incorporated into viral DNA / RNA will block
    replication, transcription, translation

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