Motivation: Goal Setting and Striving

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Author:
athorne
ID:
243576
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Motivation: Goal Setting and Striving
Updated:
2013-10-29 03:55:04
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psyc 385 exam
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How we set and strive for goals
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  1. discrepancy (aka incongruity)
    • any mismatch perceived between one's present state and one's ideal state
    • motivational properties to remove or reduce
  2. ideal self
    • an idea or image a person hold in their head of who they would like to be
    • when current self matches ~ experience gain and happiness
    • when current self does not match ~ experience shame and depression
  3. ought self
    • the idea or image a person holds in their head of who they should be
    • when current self matches ~ feel relaxed and like there is no loss
    • when current self does not match ~ experience fear, guilt, and anxiety
  4. TOTE Model
    • Test-operate-test-exit
    • test: compare present to ideal
    • operate: a planned sequence of actions on the environment
    • test: compare present to the ideal again
    • exit: leaving the plan once the ideal and present match
  5. cognitive dissonance theory
    • discrepancy theory
    • thoughts and conniptions do not match up with behaviours and we are motivated to reduce the discrepancy
    • not experienced constantly, but still creates a discrepancy
  6. corrective motivation
    • modern alternative theory to rigid TOTE model
    • type of motivation that activates a decision-making process in which the individual considers many different possible ways for reducing the present-ideal incongruity
    • eg. change the plan, change behaviour (increase effort), withdraw from the plan
    • dynamic process of balancing trying to achieve the ideal sate but also being ready to change and revise an ineffective plan
  7. discrepancy reduction
    • based on the discrepancy-detecting feedback that underlies plans and corrective motivation
    • feedback comes from some aspect of the environment
    • plan-based corrective motivation
    • reactive, deficiency overcoming, revolves around a feedback system
  8. discrepancy creation
    • based on a "feed-forward" system in which the person looks forward and proactively sets a future, higher goal
    • goal-setting motivation
    • proactive, and growth-pursuing
  9. goal
    • whatever an individual is striving to accomplish; an internal representation of a desired (ideal) state
    • generates motivation by focusing attention on the discrepancy between present and ideal levels of accomplishment
    • performers are more likely to quit the task when the goal is accomplished (vs when they are bored/tired/frustrated)
  10. conceptions of goals in the literature
    • personal projects; things you work on (Little)
    • recurring goals in everyday life; personal strivings (Emmons)
    • life tasks dependent on stage of life, environmentally contingent (Cantor)
  11. goal difficulty
    • how hard a goal is to accomplish
    • effort and difficulty have an inverted-u relationship
    • energize behaviour (increased effort and persistence)
    • if too challenging -> increased feelings of incompetence, anxiety, and likelihood of quitting
  12. goal specificity
    • how clearly a goal informs the performer precisely what they are to do
    • typically involves restating the goal in numerical terms
    • direct behaviour (increased attention and planning)
  13. feedback (in relation to goals)
    • knowledge of results allows people to keep track of any progress towards their goal
    • without ~ performance can be emotionally unimportant/uninvolving
    • only in relation to a goal that one can use ~ to judge one's performance
  14. goal acceptance
    • critical when one person attempts to provide another person with a goal
    • factors: perceived difficulty, participation, credibility of the other, extrinsic incentives
  15. perceived difficulty of imposed goal
    • inverse relationship to acceptance
    • looking for optimal challenges
  16. participation in the setting of an imposed goal
    • goal acceptance is more likely for an assigned goal if their POV is listened to and if a clear rationale is provided
    • fosters autonomy, therefore also internalization and acceptance
  17. credibility of the person assigning the goal
    • perceived trustworthiness, supportiveness, knowledgeability, and liveability from performer's POV
    • perceived to have the performer's well-being in mind
  18. extrinsic incentives (and goal acceptance)
    • increases along with performer's perception of benefits of attainment
    • eg. scholarships, public recognition
  19. pitfalls of goal setting
    • stress: resulting from goals with too high a difficulty level
    • opportunities for failure: because there is an explicit, objective performance standard leading to emotional, social and tangible consequences
    • risking IM loss: if administered in a controlling way
  20. long-term goals
    • made up of a series of short-term goals
    • don't provide immediate performance feedback
    • there are multiple different pathways available of short-term goals to achieve
  21. short-term goals
    • provide more frequent feedback and reinforcement
    • facilitate intrinsic motivation
    • there are multiple different pathways available to achieve long-term goals
  22. outcome simulation
    • wishful thinking
    • cultivates hope
  23. process simulation
    • focusing on the means one uses to attain the goal
    • produces goal-striving behaviour
  24. implementation intentions (II)
    • a plan to carry out one's goal-direct behaviour and deciding in advance of one's goal striving the when, where and how long that underlies one's forthcoming goal-directed action
    • habit formation
    • strongly increases likelihood of goal attainment
    • allows performers to overcome difficulties in getting started, persisting, and resuming goal-striving behaviour in spite of daily distractions and obstacles
  25. II - Getting Started
    • set up environment-behaviour contingencies that lead to automatic, environmental control of behaviour
    • creating habits eg. stopping completely at stop signs
  26. II - Persisting
    • helps people anticipate a forthcoming difficulty and therefore form an intention of what they will do once the difficulty comes their way
    • improves subsequent persistence and goal attainment
    • focuses attention on the goal and excludes distractions
  27. steps to goal setting
    • 1. What do you want to accomplish? a specific ideal state based on performance
    • 2. Ensure that the goal is relatively difficult
    • 3. Translate vague goals into specific objectives
    • 4. Internalize the goal (from externally imposed to internally endorsed)
    • 5. Discuss different possible plans that could lead to attainment
    • 6. Formulate an implementation intention
    • 7. Create a means to receive consistent feedback
  28. goal coherence
    • will accept a goal if it is vertically and horizontally coherent
    • higher levels associated with greater well-being and easier attainment
  29. vertical coherence
    degree to which current goal is in alignment with higher level goals
  30. horizontal coherence
    • are my goals in alignment with my other current goals?
    • can be in conflict or work well together, depending
  31. goal concordance
    • the extent to which a goal comes from your core values
    • source can be intrinsic, identified, integrated, or external
    • goals related to identify are easier to peruse
  32. goal self-congruence
    • intrinsic and extrinsic goals are intr/extr related to psychological needs respectively
    • intrinsic goals help satisfy psychological needs
    • extrinsic goals make it difficult to meet psychological needs because others set the standards (undermining autonomy), they are difficult to obtain (undermine competence), and are focussed on impressing people rather than forming relationships (undermining relatedness)
  33. Socio-cognitive Valuing Processes (SVP)
    • social context influences the types of goals we value
    • how we are socialized leads to different types of self-concordance in goals eg. introjection -> non-concordant and identification -> self-concordant
    • our culture values EG and can therefore be in conflict with OVP and IG
  34. automatic goals
    • goals that are instantly activated in certain environmental contexts due to repetition of pairing between the environment and the goal
    • can be intentional or unintentional
  35. Organismic Valuing Processes (OVP)
    • any living thing will know what is good for it outside of social contexts
    • proposition 1: value what is good for the organism and growth
    • proposition 2: humans value IG and move away from EG
    • proposition 3: goals can be activated by any environmental cue that recalls the organismic nature of human beings
  36. activation of OVP
    • supportive (vs. threatening) social climate
    • wake-up call
    • organismic calls

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