Motivation: Personal Control Beliefs

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  1. exercising personal control
    • people try to make desirable outcomes more likely and undesirable outcomes less likely
    • attempt to improve their lives and the lives of others
    • motivated to do so when they believe they are capable and that the environment is responsive
  2. expectancy
    • a subjective prediction of how likely it is that an event will occur
    • both efficacy and outcome expectations must be high to energize goal-directed behaviour
  3. efficacy expectations
    • a judgement of one's capacity to execute a particular act or course of action
    • "Can I do it?"
  4. outcome expectations
    • a judgement that a given action, once performed, will cause a particular outcome
    • "Will what I do work?"
  5. self-efficacy
    • an individual's belief that they "have what it takes" to marshal together the resources needed to cope effectively with the potentially overwhelming demands of a situation
    • model for personal empowerment because they are malleable
    • agentic thinking
  6. high self-efficacy
    • leads to flexible, adaptive, and confident engagements with the world
    • counter anxiety, doubt and avoidance
  7. sources of self-efficacy
    • personal behaviour history
    • observations of others
    • verbal persuasions
    • physiological states
    • note: all pertaining to the specific, target behaviour
  8. effects of self-efficacy
    • choice of activities and environments
    • extent of effort, persistence, and resiliency
    • quality of thinking and decision making
    • emotional reactions esp. to stress and anxiety
  9. learned helplessness
    • psychological state that results when an individual expects that event in their live are uncontrollable
    • learned when their behaviour exerts little or no influence over their outcomes while outside influences actually control what happens to them
    • profound disruptions to motivation, learning, and emotion
    • involves contingency, cognition, and behaviour
  10. contingency (learned helplessness)
    objective relationship between a person's behaviour and the environment's positive or negative outcomes
  11. cognition (learned helplessness)
    all those mental precesses the individual relies on to translate objective environmental contingencies into subjective personal control beliefs
  12. behaviour (learned helplessness)
    • the person's voluntary coping behaviour
    • varies along a continuum that extends from active and energetic to passive and withdrawing
  13. reactance theory
    • explanation of how people react to uncontrollable life events
    • expectations of controllability frostier reactance
    • expectations of uncontrollability foster helplessness
  14. reactance response
    initial response is to be increasingly assertive psychological and behaviours in an attempt to reestablish control
  15. helplessness response
    occurs after an individual has failed their initial reactance response to an uncontrollable event
  16. hope
    • agentic thinking and pathway thinking (helplessness vs. mastery) function together to provide energy and direction for one's coping efforts
    • high-hope individuals (resilient self-efficacy and strong mastery motivation) are able to cope better in several domains vs. low-hope individuals
  17. ego depletion
    self-control requires energy and this energy is limited leading to a depletion of resources
  18. muscle hypothesis of ego depletion
    • when you exercise a muscle, you tire it
    • if you expend all of your energy you will experience ego depletion
    • the more you try to control yourself, the more the opposite occurs
  19. "white bear" effect
    the more you try to not think about something, the more you will think about it
  20. intentional operating process
    there is a goal in mind and you search for items that are consistent with the state
  21. ironic operating process
    • comparer
    • search for sensations and thoughts that are inconsistent with successful control
  22. limited mental resources
    • explanation for failure of self-control
    • II lead to effortless self-control
  23. goal types (explanation for self-control failure)
    approach autonomous, and conflict-free goals are easier to exert self-control on than avoidance, controlled, and conflicting goals
  24. approach (everyday explanation for self-control failure)
    behaviour aimed at reducing discrepancy between the goal and where you are now
  25. avoidance (everyday explanation for self-control failure)
    • behaviour aimed and increasing the discrepancy because you do not want to acheive your goal
    • leads to stress, anxiety lower well-being, and less success
  26. advantages of excuses
    • protect self-esteem
    • degreases negative affect resulting from failure and responsibility
    • fosters social harmony
  27. disadvantages of excuses (long-term)
    • speculation about truth -> social disharmony
    • undermines self-control abilities and confidence
    • locus of control becomes more external
    • undermines long-term self-esteem
    • goal disengagement
  28. outcome-focused mental simulations
    • imagining the desired results of successfully completing your goal
    • exp. studied less than control, studied less than they planned, lower grades than the control
  29. process-focused mental simulations
    • imagining the steps and pathway to successfully complete your goal
    • exp. studied more than control, studied more than they planned, higher grades than control and combined
  30. problems with self-regulation
    • getting started in spite of daily distractions
    • persisting in spite of difficulties and setbacks
    • resuming work once interruptions occur
  31. implementation intentions (how to)
    • write it down
    • make plan with how you will deal with temptations
    • develop cues to start your preparation to respond - link behaviour to a situational cue to help anticipate forthcoming difficulties and focuses attention on goal-directed action while excluding distractions
    • know yourself and your temptations, and have a plan with how to limit the effect of the distraction and get back to work
    • pair with self-concordant goals for best predictor of progress
  32. persistence
    socially rewarded but can be maladaptive (eg. unattainable goals - depression and mania)
  33. disengagement
    • to fully experience ~, one must remove one's self from these aspects
    • feedback is extremely useful
    • cognitive
    • affective
    • motivational
    • behavioural
  34. cognitive disengagement
    clear unattainable goal from WM
  35. affective disengagement
    • down regulation of unwanted feelings
    • coping
    • feel detached
  36. motivational disengagement
    rejection of explicit goals that are incompatible with implicit motives
  37. implicit motives
    unconscious automatic activation of goals
  38. behavioural disengagement
    switch to new activities that are not related to the goal
  39. low goal disengagement
    • attached to goals you set for yourself
    • cortisol levels dissipate less quickly throughout the day (therefore more stress)
  40. high goal disengagement
    • able to see that their goals are impossible and disengage easily
    • experience less stress and are healthier over time
  41. re-engagement
    • the ability to re-engage into a new goal after disengagement
    • increases positive aspects of well-being
    • high to low levels
    • interaction effects with high to low levels of disengagement
    • ideally ~ into goals are are cohesive and self-congruent
  42. goal shift
    the goal is the same but it has been modified to be more attainable
Card Set:
Motivation: Personal Control Beliefs
2013-10-29 07:56:26
psyc 385 exam

The beliefs we have about control and self-regulation
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