Social Welfare Midterm
Card Set Information
Social Welfare Midterm
social work policy
BGSU Social Work, Social Policy class with Dr.Lee Fall 2013 Midterm
Issues of discrimination
left wing/side of political spectrum
Extreme conservative perspective
extreme liberal perspective
Common belief of Conservatives and Liberals
Both want to maintain the current structure, but make it fit their view point
Common view of reactionaries and radicals
Both want to completely change the current system
Conservative views of human nature
People are pessimistic
People are corrupt, lazy, self-centered
People need to be controlled
Conservative views of individual behavior
People are autonomous (self-governing), free will
Result of motivation; choice; responsibility Poverty is due to irresponsibility, laziness, and lack of self-control
Conservative Views of the Family
Gov’t welfare program weakened the family, contributed to poverty
Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI) in 1996
Value traditional family image and family as a helping resource
Liberal view of human nature
People are social, curious, and loving
Accept the “blank slate” view
People do not have to be controlled.
Liberal attitude toward change
History is progress
Better social welfare system
Radical view of change
Believe social welfare systems have not gone far enough
Radical views of human nature
People are inherently hard-working and creative
Hard work as a virtue
Liberal and Radical perspectives on individual behavior
Result of our environment
Result of immediate consequences of behavior Support prison programs (criminal behavior is learned)
Liberal and Radical view of family
Liberals- family is evolving institution; flexible, pragmatic
Radicals- regard the conservatives’ family perspective as oppressive and a distortion of both male and female talents
Reactionary view on change
Believe change has already gone too far
Social welfare programs should be eliminated
Conservative views of social system
what exists is useful and necessary
Liberal view of social system
changes will reduce inequality and increase social justice
Radical view of social system
Conflict perspective; a class hierarchy
Changing society completely is the only way to prevent inequality
Conservative government and economic view
free-market process is legitimate; compassionate conservatism
Liberal views of government and economy
Prefers governmental welfare programs to private ones
Gov’t regulation of economy
Radical views of gov and economy
both public and private elements; complete restructuring is necessary
Reactionary views of gov and economy
abolishing the income tax
ending the war on drugs
repealing all gun laws
Conservative to moderate labels in the real world
Traditionalists, neo-traditionalists, conventionalists
Most people aren't strictly liberal or conservative, but a mix of both.
Liberal to radical labels in the real world
Communitarians, pragmatists, and permissivists
Most people aren't strictly liberal, radical, reactionary, or conservative, but a mix of many.
Social Work’s Core Values
Importance of Human Relationships
Is social work primarily for Conservatives or Liberals?
It is more liberal than is the general population but a large number of conservatives and moderates feel to comfortable within the professions ranks
Migrant Worker Speakers
José Salinas- Was a child of former migrant farm workers; Center (OMEC) since June of 2000.
Kimo Kim- Arrived in Michigan to study in 1981. Serving the migrant program in Michigan since 1987
Migrant worker statistics
215 million migrants worldwide
3% world‟s population (more than Brazil, almost 70% of USA populatoin
A person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another.
Moves from place to place for seasonal or temporary work.
The move can be an interstate, intra-state, or international
Grapes of Wrath
Migrant farm worker story of John Steinbeck opened the eyes of Americans.
Harvest of Shame
One of most famous documentaries of all time, 1960's
by Edward R. Murrow brought needed legislation to the plight of the migrant farm worker
1965, Mexican farm worker labor movement
Asking living wage, level, decent housing, children education to move out of the vicious cycle of poverty
Cesar Chavez- leader
Title I – Part C, Migrant Education
Started in 1967.
President Lyndon B. Johnson‟s “War on Poverty”.
The U.S. Department of Education awarded each state money to provide supplemental educational services to migrant farm children and to keep children out of the fields.
Children in the fields
70% of working children in agriculture.
Almost ½ million children working in USA farm.
Extreme hazardous condition & long hours Pesticide, Sharp tool, enormous machines. More than 100,000 children are injured every year.
Migrant issues in USA, Now
Double standards of USA legal system.
About 20% of the handpicked food we eat is picked by kids in USA.
Average farm worker family makes less than $17,500 a year, well below the poverty line.
2 purposes of social welfare
Social treatment (helping)
9 American Social Values
Judaeo-Christian charity values
Egalitarianism and individualism
Protestant work ethic and capitalism
Marriage/ nuclear family
Judaeo-Christian charity values
People must care for one another.
Social work ethics reflect Judaeo-Christian values, but social work practice owes more to individualistic values
Democratic Egalitarianism and Individualism
All citizens are equal before the law (citizenship used to= male property holders)
Individual responsibility –Blame the victim –Failure on personal lack of effort
Protestant Work Ethic & Capitalism
the moral basis for American capitalism
–Work for economic gain is the way to success, a moral obligation
–Poverty and public dependency demonstrate immorality
Survival of the fittest applied to human society.
lives of people who were “economically unfit” should not be saved by public assistance
Honesty, abstinence from things defined by religion and custom as immoral.
the sanctity of marriage and family
patriarchal authority in the home
Male heads of families (power and authority)
: sexism, classism, racism, neocolonialism or imperialism
European American norms are universal and supreme to other cultures.
The power advantages that people of European descent collectively have over people of color
Marriage and the Nuclear Family
A social, sexual, and economic relationship in which a man and a woman are legally joined to found and maintain a family
The “American Ideal”
Otherism (ableism, ageism)
Why the United States was a “welfare laggard”
Individualism (equality of opportunity)
–Distrust of government
–“land of abundance”
No reason for people to be poor and therefore no reason for any but the most private charity
Definitions of health and illness
Ecological and Holistic approach
General Systems model
Navajo view vs. World Health Organization
Biological definition of illness
A deviation from a biological norm
Biological definition of health
Absence of disease
Ecological and Holistic views of health
Take into consideration environmental, socioeconomic, physiological factors which impact individual wellness.
general system theory view of illness
Disruption of the interaction of natural systems
Navajo view of illness
A disharmony with nature
biological model view of treatments
Technical, medical treatment
World Health Organization view of health
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
World Health Organization view of treatment
Ecological and Holistic view of treatment
A person’s ability to function in the fullest and most positive way (self-actualization).
General systems theory view of treatment/recovery
Spectrum of malfunctioning to functioning
Health care costs in the U.S
Patient cost $680 vs $100 of actual cost
growth of managed care
How are health costs being covered in the U.S?
Private health plans (employee related)
Fed. Gov't expenditures (reimbursement for patients who can't pay)
Out of pocket costs
Americans with and without health care
48 million Americans lack health insurance- Census Bureau 2013
9% of children under 18 are uninsured
People who do not qualify for assistance (Medicaid), but whose low wages prevent them from buying health insurance.
Major indicators of health (in a society)
Infant mortality rate
Factors that shape health and disease
Cultural factors (diet and health practices)
Environmental factors (pollution)
Economic factors (poverty vs. wealth)
Disease and race/ethnicity
Diabetes among many native people (Oglala Sioux)
High blood pressure among African Americans due to diet, smoking, and stress
Impacts of low income on health
Lack of adequate health care
higher rates of:
death rate (3x)
Public health approach to health and illness
Focuses on prevention of illness
environmental causes of illness
3 aspects of public health approach
Secondary- early detection
Holistic Health Model
Interrelationship of psychological, biological, and environmental systems
Focuses on modifications in eating patterns, meditation, relaxation, exercise, and attitudes toward illness
U.S Health care in the 1800's
Public Health Reform bill- 1848
The U.S. Public Health Service- 1912
New theories about the environmental and social causes of disease