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Issues of discrimination
- institutional discrimination
- Republican Party
- Right side/wing
- Democratic party
- left wing/side of political spectrum
- Far right
- Extreme conservative perspective
- I.E- Libertarians
- Far left
- extreme liberal perspective
- I.E- Socialists
Common belief of Conservatives and Liberals
Both want to maintain the current structure, but make it fit their view point
Common view of reactionaries and radicals
Both want to completely change the current system
Conservative views of human nature
- People are pessimistic
- People are corrupt, lazy, self-centered
- People need to be controlled
Conservative views of individual behavior
- People are autonomous (self-governing), free will
- Result of motivation; choice; responsibility Poverty is due to irresponsibility, laziness, and lack of self-control
Conservative Views of the Family
- Gov’t welfare program weakened the family, contributed to poverty
- Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI) in 1996
- Value traditional family image and family as a helping resource
Liberal view of human nature
- People are social, curious, and loving
- Accept the “blank slate” view
- People do not have to be controlled.
Liberal attitude toward change
- History is progress
- Better social welfare system
Radical view of change
Believe social welfare systems have not gone far enough
Radical views of human nature
- People are inherently hard-working and creative
- Hard work as a virtue
Liberal and Radical perspectives on individual behavior
- Result of our environment
- Result of immediate consequences of behavior Support prison programs (criminal behavior is learned)
Liberal and Radical view of family
- Liberals- family is evolving institution; flexible, pragmatic
- Radicals- regard the conservatives’ family perspective as oppressive and a distortion of both male and female talents
Reactionary view on change
- Believe change has already gone too far
- Social welfare programs should be eliminated
Conservative views of social system
- functional perspectives
- what exists is useful and necessary
Liberal view of social system
- frequently unfair
- changes will reduce inequality and increase social justice
Radical view of social system
- Conflict perspective; a class hierarchy
- Changing society completely is the only way to prevent inequality
Conservative government and economic view
free-market process is legitimate; compassionate conservatism
Liberal views of government and economy
- Prefers governmental welfare programs to private ones
- Gov’t regulation of economy
Radical views of gov and economy
- both public and private elements; complete restructuring is necessary
Reactionary views of gov and economy
- abolishing the income tax
- less government
- ending the war on drugs
- repealing all gun laws
Conservative to moderate labels in the real world
- Traditionalists, neo-traditionalists, conventionalists
- Most people aren't strictly liberal or conservative, but a mix of both.
Liberal to radical labels in the real world
- Communitarians, pragmatists, and permissivists
- Most people aren't strictly liberal, radical, reactionary, or conservative, but a mix of many.
Social Work’s Core Values
- Social Justice
- Importance of Human Relationships
Is social work primarily for Conservatives or Liberals?
It is more liberal than is the general population but a large number of conservatives and moderates feel to comfortable within the professions ranks
Migrant Worker Speakers
- José Salinas- Was a child of former migrant farm workers; Center (OMEC) since June of 2000.
- Kimo Kim- Arrived in Michigan to study in 1981. Serving the migrant program in Michigan since 1987
Migrant worker statistics
- 215 million migrants worldwide
- 3% world‟s population (more than Brazil, almost 70% of USA populatoin
A person who leaves one country to settle permanently in another.
- Moves from place to place for seasonal or temporary work.
- The move can be an interstate, intra-state, or international
Grapes of Wrath
Migrant farm worker story of John Steinbeck opened the eyes of Americans.
Harvest of Shame
- One of most famous documentaries of all time, 1960's
- by Edward R. Murrow brought needed legislation to the plight of the migrant farm worker
1965, Mexican farm worker labor movement
- Asking living wage, level, decent housing, children education to move out of the vicious cycle of poverty
- Cesar Chavez- leader
Title I – Part C, Migrant Education
- Started in 1967.
- President Lyndon B. Johnson‟s “War on Poverty”.
- The U.S. Department of Education awarded each state money to provide supplemental educational services to migrant farm children and to keep children out of the fields.
Children in the fields
- 70% of working children in agriculture.
- Almost ½ million children working in USA farm.
- Extreme hazardous condition & long hours Pesticide, Sharp tool, enormous machines. More than 100,000 children are injured every year.
Migrant issues in USA, Now
- Double standards of USA legal system.
- About 20% of the handpicked food we eat is picked by kids in USA.
- Average farm worker family makes less than $17,500 a year, well below the poverty line.
2 purposes of social welfare
- Social treatment (helping)
- Social control
9 American Social Values
- Judaeo-Christian charity values
- Egalitarianism and individualism
- Protestant work ethic and capitalism
- Social Darwinsim
- New Puritanism
- White Privilege
- Marriage/ nuclear family
- American "ideal"
Judaeo-Christian charity values
- People must care for one another.
- Social work ethics reflect Judaeo-Christian values, but social work practice owes more to individualistic values
Democratic Egalitarianism and Individualism
- All citizens are equal before the law (citizenship used to= male property holders)
- Individual responsibility –Blame the victim –Failure on personal lack of effort
Protestant Work Ethic & Capitalism
- the moral basis for American capitalism
- –Work for economic gain is the way to success, a moral obligation
- –Poverty and public dependency demonstrate immorality
- Survival of the fittest applied to human society.
- lives of people who were “economically unfit” should not be saved by public assistance
- Honesty, abstinence from things defined by religion and custom as immoral.
- the sanctity of marriage and family
- patriarchal authority in the home
- Male heads of families (power and authority)
- Related to: sexism, classism, racism, neocolonialism or imperialism
- European American norms are universal and supreme to other cultures.
- The power advantages that people of European descent collectively have over people of color
Marriage and the Nuclear Family
A social, sexual, and economic relationship in which a man and a woman are legally joined to found and maintain a family
The “American Ideal”
- Otherism (ableism, ageism)
Why the United States was a “welfare laggard”
- Individualism (equality of opportunity)
- –Distrust of government
- –Market competition
- –“land of abundance”
- No reason for people to be poor and therefore no reason for any but the most private charity
Definitions of health and illness
- Culturally determined.
- Biological model
- Ecological and Holistic approach
- General Systems model
- Navajo view vs. World Health Organization
Biological definition of illness
A deviation from a biological norm
Biological definition of health
Absence of disease
Ecological and Holistic views of health
Take into consideration environmental, socioeconomic, physiological factors which impact individual wellness.
general system theory view of illness
Disruption of the interaction of natural systems
Navajo view of illness
A disharmony with nature
biological model view of treatments
Technical, medical treatment
World Health Organization view of health
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
World Health Organization view of treatment
Ecological and Holistic view of treatment
A person’s ability to function in the fullest and most positive way (self-actualization).
General systems theory view of treatment/recovery
Spectrum of malfunctioning to functioning
Health care costs in the U.S
- Patient cost $680 vs $100 of actual cost
- Latest technology
- growth of managed care
How are health costs being covered in the U.S?
- Private health plans (employee related)
- Fed. Gov't expenditures (reimbursement for patients who can't pay)
- Out of pocket costs
Americans with and without health care
- 48 million Americans lack health insurance- Census Bureau 2013
- 9% of children under 18 are uninsured
- "medically poor"
People who do not qualify for assistance (Medicaid), but whose low wages prevent them from buying health insurance.
Major indicators of health (in a society)
- life expectancy
- Infant mortality rate
Factors that shape health and disease
- Cultural factors (diet and health practices)
- Environmental factors (pollution)
- Economic factors (poverty vs. wealth)
Disease and race/ethnicity
- Diabetes among many native people (Oglala Sioux)
- High blood pressure among African Americans due to diet, smoking, and stress
Impacts of low income on health
- Lack of adequate health care
- higher rates of:
- Chronic disease
- death rate (3x)
Public health approach to health and illness
- Focuses on prevention of illness
- environmental causes of illness
3 aspects of public health approach
- Primary- prevention
- Secondary- early detection
- Tertiary- rehabilitation
Holistic Health Model
- Interrelationship of psychological, biological, and environmental systems
- Focuses on modifications in eating patterns, meditation, relaxation, exercise, and attitudes toward illness
U.S Health care in the 1800's
- Public Health Reform bill- 1848
- The U.S. Public Health Service- 1912
- New theories about the environmental and social causes of disease