Digestion

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Author:
Jwannn
ID:
243649
Filename:
Digestion
Updated:
2013-10-29 14:05:49
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Digestion
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Digestion
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  1. Uvula
    • Cone-shaped projection soft palate
    • Swallowing: soft palate and uvula drawn upward
    • Closes off nasopharynx: preventing food and fluid entry to nasal cavity.
    • (Sometimes doesn't work and things can go up nose from throat or down throat from nose)
  2. Tongue
    • Moves food through the oral cavity
    • Assists with swallowing and speech
    • Lingual Frenulum: anchors tongue to floor of oral cavity. Also limits posterior motion of the tongue, so we don't choke on our tongue.
  3. Salivary Glands
    • Saliva
    • 99.5% water, .5% solutes
    • Wets food for easier swallowing
    • Dissolves food for tasting
    • Chemical digestion of starch begins with enzyme (salivary amylase)
    • Enzyme (lysozyme): helps destroy bacteria
    • Protects mouth from infection with its rinsing action
  4. Parotid Gland
    • Largest salivary glad
    • Anterior and inferior to the ear
    • Site of mumps infection
  5. Submadndibular Gland
    Inferior to the body of the mandible
  6. Sublingual Gland
    Inferior to tongue on floor of oral cavity
  7. Deciduous (Primary or baby teeth)
    • Come in from 6-2.5 years
    • Lost from 6 years old to teens
    • 20 teeth
  8. Permanent Teeth
    32 teeth
  9. Central Incisors
    Cutting and shearing
  10. Lateral Incisors
    cutting and shearing
  11. Cuspids (canine)
    Holding and tearing
  12. Bicuspids (1st and 2nd premolar)
    Crushing and grinding
  13. Molar (1st, 2nd, and 3rd)
    Crushing and grinding
  14. Tooth Structure ***
  15. Enamel
    • hardest substance in body
    • calcium phosphate or carbonate
  16. Dentin
    calcified connective tissue
  17. Cementum
    • bone-like
    • periodontal ligament penetrates it
  18. Pharynx
    • A funnel-shaped tube posterior to oral cavity
    • Composed of skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane
    • Origin of Peristalsis
  19. Nasopharynx
    respiration only
  20. Oropharynx
    digestive and respiratory functions
  21. Laryngopharynx
    digestive and respiratory functions
  22. Tonsils
    • Located in pharynx
    • Nodes of lymph tissue
  23. Palatine (tonsillectomy) (tonsils)
    lateral, posterior region of oral cavity
  24. Lingual (tonsils)
    base of tongue
  25. Pharyngeal (adenoid)
    posterior wall of nasopharynx
  26. Esophagus
    • portion of the GI tract connecting the pharynx to the stomach (10 inches long)
    • Collapsible muscular tube posterior to the trachea
  27. Epiglottis
    • Cartilaginous, leaf like structure
    • Positioned on top of glottis that covers the trachea during swallowing
    • -Prevents fluid/food entry
  28. Lower Esophageal Sphincter
    • Junction between the esophagus and the stomach
    • Constricts to prevent regurgitation of stomach contents back into esophagus (heartburn, acid reflux)
  29. Stomach
    • Most distensible part of the GI tract
    • J-shaped pouch which empties into the small intestine
    • Functions:
    • -store food prior to entry into small intestine
    • -mechanically churns food and gastric secretions-mechanical
    • -partial digestion of proteins-chemical
    • -limited absorption (alcohol, water, drugs, electrolytes)- "speed" of action
    • -moves food into the small intestine as "chyme"
  30. Cardia
    Upper, narrow region just below lower esophageal sphincter
  31. •Fundus
    • –dome shaped portion in contact with diaphragm
    • –superior to and left of cardia
  32. Body (of the Stomach)
    main, central portion
  33. Pyloris (of the stomach)
    • Funnel shaped terminal portion
    • -Pyloric antrum- wide
    • -Pyloric canal- narrow
    • -Pyloric sphincter- junction of stomach and small intestine
  34. Greater Curvature***
  35. Lesser Curvature***
  36. Small Intestine
    • Primary site of digestive and absorption events
    • Absorption of nutrients enhanced due to large surface area
    • -Folds
    • -Villi
    • -Microvilli
  37. Duodenum
    • Originates at pyloric sphincter; C-shaped
    • Receives bile from the common bile duct that arises from the liver (production/secretion) and the gallbladder (storage)
    • Receives pancreatic juice from the pancreas via the pancreatic duct
  38. Jejunum
    • duodenum to ileum
    • primary region of absorption
  39. Illeum
    • distal portion
    • ileocecal valve b/w small and large intestine
  40. Large Intestine
    • preparation of chyme for elimination
    • absorption of water and electrolytes
  41. Cecum
    • inverted pouch
    • Vermiform Appendix: lymphatic tissue which may ward off infection
  42. Colon
    • Ascending colon: ascend from the cecum up right abdominal wall to transverse colon
    • -Hepatic Colon: Splenic flexure to DC
    • Descending colon: runs down left abdominal wall
    • Sigmoid colon: S shaped attachment with rectum

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