History of Science

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entitude
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243684
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History of Science
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2013-10-31 00:33:35
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  1. Hellenization
    everything is greek
  2. carolingian renaissance
    • Carolingian Empire
    • Charlemagne
    • educational reform: train people to read/write
    • urban schools
  3. liberal arts (trivium)(quadrivium)
    • trivium: grammar, rhetoric, logic
    • quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy
  4. urban schools
    • liberal arts
    • Martianus Capella
    • village size increased
  5. cathedral schools
    • church run schools
    • Charlemagne?
  6. universities
    • communities of people
    • learning
  7. Anselm
    • logical argument for the existence of god
    • is god one being?
    • no approval
  8. Peter Abelard
    applies logic (logical questions) to god/faith
  9. Bernard of Clairvaux
    • anti-abelard
    • can't apply logic to faith
  10. naturalism
    • world is orderly
    • divine craftsman gives atoms shape
    • focus on the natural order
  11. the translation movement
    • averroes/avecinna (arabic)
    • bible/works more accessible to nobles
    • protestant reformation
  12. Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
    • "commentator" (on aristotle)
    • radical aristotelianism / latin averroism
  13. Avicenna (Ibn Sina)
    • argued with aristotle natural philosophy
    • reconcile with religion
    • arabic (translation movement)
  14. University of Paris
    • received translations from arabic guys
    • about aristotle
    • theology > philosophy
    • special permission to teach aristotle
    • backlash = radical aristotelianism
    • world is eternal
    • creation ex nihilo (from nothing)
  15. handmaiden thesis
    • thomas aquinas
    • philosophy is the handmaiden of theology
    • medieval
    • (medieval philosophers didn't call themselves that)
  16. university faculties (arts; law–medicine–theology)
    • evolved from cathedral schools
    • approved by vatican?
  17. radical Aristotelianism/Latin Averroism
    • reconcile aristotle and islam
    • arabic translations of aristotle works
    • unity of truth (one truth) reached through philosophy or religion
  18. doctrine of the double truth
    • contradictions: one true, one false
    • unity of truth
    • theology must determine the truth
    • logic vs belief
    • philosophy = theology
  19. Etienne Tempier, condemnation of 1277
    • no aristotle @ paris uni
    • control what people learn/think
    • protect religion
  20. determinism
    • everything pre-determined
    • natural order to how things follow
    • only natural causes
    • hard version of naturalism
  21. divine omnipotence
    is god all powerful?
  22. unity of truth
    • only one truth
    • book of scripture, book of nature (must agree)
  23. Thomas Aquinas
    • reconcile faith and reason
    • boo averroism
    • handmaiden?
  24. Middle Ages
    yay religion, boo science
  25. Renaissance
    rebirth
  26. Renaissance humanism
    • greeks were awesome
    • move forward using their shit
    • yay education
    • yay humanities (trivium)
  27. Lorenzo Valla
    • humanist
    • yay grammar! among other things
    • forgery:
    • conservative: back to ancient sources/tradition
    • radical consequences: claiming it's a forgery undermines catholic authority
  28. Donation of Constantine
    constantine gives money to science!
  29. patronage
    funding
  30. sector – demonstrator – lector
    • sector- does actual dissection, not an academic, does not speak latin
    • lector- read the lesson, teach
    • demonstrator- points at what sector is dissecting/lector is talking about
  31. Mondino
    • medieval
    • lectures on anatomy
    • printing
  32. Vesalius, On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543)
  33. realism – instrumentalism
    • realism = natural physics
    • instrumentalism = use that shit
  34. Sacrobosco, On the Sphere
    • earth = sphere
    • universe = clockwork
  35. Theory of the Planets literature
    • explained almagest?
    • explained shit (instrumentalist? realist?)
  36. Ptolemy, Planetary Hypotheses
    • nested spheres, physical reality
    • computed dimensions of the universe based on epicycles
  37. Peurbach, New Theories of the Planets (1454)
    • presents ptolemy's epicycles
    • crystalline spheres
    • motions controlled by sun
  38. Regiomontanus, Epitome of the Almagest (1496)
    • restore astronomy
    • put back together database???
    • translation of ancient works = bad
    • gaps between theory + observation
  39. Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)
    • heliocentric
    • explains: retrograde motion, changes in brightness/size, bounded elongation
    • one UNIFIED system
  40. homocentrics
    only one center which is earth
  41. bounded elongation
    mercury and venus
  42. heliocentrism
    SUN!
  43. geocentrism
    EARTH!
  44. the Wittenberg Interpretaton
    • Copernicus theory studied at university
    • took bits and pieces they liked?
  45. Protestant Reformation
    • purity of the church
    • no idols
  46. Andreas Osiander
    • preface for Copernicus
    • instrumentalist over realist because calm your tits church
  47. stellar parallax
    shift of position of stars based on perspective
  48. Tycho Brahe, Instruments for Astronomy Restored (1598)
  49. geoheliocentrism
    • tycho's idea
    • earth center, sun around earth, planets around sun
    • because couldn't see stellar parallax
  50. Keler, Secret of the Cosmos (1596)
  51. Kepler, A New Astronomy Based on Causes, or Celestial Physics (1609)
  52. Kepler, Epitome of Copernican Astronomy (1618-1622)
  53. Kepler, Rudolphine Tables (1627)
    • progress of astronomy
    • instruments
    • tycho
    • etc
  54. Galileo, Sidereal (Starry) Messenger (1610)
  55. Medicean planets
    jupiter's four moons

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