Bio-Med Vocab - Chapter 4

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Bio-Med Vocab - Chapter 4
2013-10-29 19:34:16
Bio Med Vocab

Bio-Med Vocab - Chapter 4
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  1. Midsagittal plane
    right and left halves
  2. Coronal
    anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
  3. Transverse
    superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
  4. anatomical position
    body posture used to locate anatomical parts in relation to each other
  5. chromatin
    structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
  6. chromosome
    threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
  7. cytoplasm
    jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts,water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
  8. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
  9. diaphragm
    muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
  10. metabolism
    sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
  11. organelle
    cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
  12. pathology
    study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences
  13. peristalsis
    rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents forward
  14. abduction
    movement away from the midsagittal plane of the body or one of its parts
  15. adduction
    movement toward the midsagittal plane of the body
  16. medial
    pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
  17. lateral
    pertaining to a side
  18. superior (cephalad)
    toward the head or upper portion of a structure
  19. inferior (caudal)
    away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
  20. Proximal
    nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
  21. distal
    further form the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
  22. anterior (ventral)
    front of the body
  23. poster (dorsal)
    back of the body
  24. parietal
    pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
  25. visceral
    pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
  26. prone
    lying on the abdomen, face down
  27. supine
    lying horizontally on the back, face up
  28. inversion
    turning inward or inside out
  29. eversion
    turning outward
  30. palmar
    pertaining to the palm of the hand
  31. plantar
    pertaining to the sole of the foot
  32. superficial
    toward the surface of the body (external)
  33. deep
    away from the surface of the body (internal)
  34. cyt-o
  35. hist/o
  36. kary/o, nucle/o
  37. anter/o
    anterior, front
  38. caud/o
  39. craini/o
    cranium (skull)
  40. dist/o
    far, farthest
  41. dors/o
    back (of body)
  42. infer/o
    lower, below
  43. later/o
    side, to one side
  44. medi/o
  45. poster/o
    back (of body), behind, posterior
  46. proxim/o
    near, nearest
  47. ventr/o
    belly, belly side
  48. abdomin/o
  49. cervic/o
    neck, cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
  50. cran/i
    cranium (skull)
  51. gastr/o
  52. ili/o
    ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
  53. inguin/o
  54. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  55. pelv/i, pelv/o
  56. spin/o
  57. thorac/o
  58. unbilic/o
    umbilicus, navel
  59. albin/o, leuk/o
  60. chlor/o
  61. chrom/o
  62. cirrh/o, jaund/o, xanth/o
  63. cyan/o
  64. erythr/o
  65. melan/o
  66. poli/o
    gray, gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
  67. acr/o
  68. eti/o
  69. idi/o
    unknown, peculiar
  70. morph/o
    form, shape, structure
  71. path/o
  72. radi/o
    radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
  73. soma/o
  74. son/o
  75. viscer/o
    internal organs
  76. xer/o
  77. -genesis
    forming, producing, origin
  78. -gnosis
  79. -gram
    record, writing
  80. -graph
    instrument for recording
  81. -graphy
    process of recording
  82. -logist
    specialist in the study of
  83. -logy
    study of
  84. -meter
    instrument for measuring
  85. -metry
    act of measuring
  86. -pathy
  87. ab-
    from, away from
  88. ad-
  89. hetero-
  90. homeo-
    same, alike
  91. infra-
    below, under
  92. peri-
  93. super-
    uppe, above
  94. trans-
    across, through
  95. ultra-
    excess, beyond
  96. adhesion
    abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
  97. analyte
    substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
  98. contrast medium
    substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
  99. dehiscence
    bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound
  100. febrile
    feverish; pertaining to a fever
  101. homeostasis
    relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
  102. inflammation
    body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes, loss of function
  103. morbid
    diseased, pertaining to a disease
  104. nuclear medicine
    branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
  105. radiology
    medial specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
  106. radionuclidse (tracers)
    substances that emit radiation spontaneously
  107. radiopharmaceutical
    radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize and organ or area of the body that will be scanned
  108. scan
    term used to describe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid or bone)
  109. sepsis
    pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
  110. suppurative
    producing or associated with generation of pus
  111. endoscopy
    visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument
  112. laparoscopy
    visual examination of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
  113. thoracoscopy
    examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
  114. complete blood count (CBC)
    common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; measures hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells); estimate red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages
  115. urinalysis
    common  urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine.
  116. computed tomography
    imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  117. doppler
    ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
  118. fluoroscopy
    radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures
  119. magnetic resonance imagine (MRI)
    noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  120. nuclear scan
    diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures
  121. positron emission tomography (PET)
    scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabloic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
  122. radiography
    imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area captured on a film; also called x-ray
  123. single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
    radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
  124. tomography
    radiographic technique that produces an image or representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
  125. ultrasonography (US)
    imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography
  126. biopsy
    representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
  127. ablation
    removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)
  128. anastomosis
    surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flor from one to another
  129. cauterize
    destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
  130. curettage
    scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette
  131. incision and drainage (I&D)
    incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
  132. laser surgery
    surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues.
  133. radical dissection
    surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of a recurrence
  134. resetion
    partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure