Ch. 16. Psych
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designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral , and interpersonal problems and improve quality of life.
goal of expanding awareness or insight
goal is to make unconscious, conscious.....six primary approaches
- 1. Free Association- expressing self with out censorship; "say first thing that comes to mind"
- 2. Interpretation- therapist's explanation of the patients's emotions and behavior
- 3. Dream Analysis- reveal unconscious themes
- 4. Resistance- difficulty patients experience when uncovering previously repressed thoughts, emotions and impulses
- 5. Transference- projecting intense, unrealistic feeling and expectations from past onto the therapist
- 6. Working Through- helping to process the problem (after insight is gained)
Jung's Analytic Psychology
goal is concerned with conscious aspects of the patients understanding. focus on individuation
Amplification- expand on dream associations
Prognostic Dreams- dreams that fortell the future
focused on strengthening social skills and assisting with coping life transitions and conflicts
goal is to emphasize development
self actualization occurs naturally, unless roadblocks hamper it
struggle and self discipline occur on way to personal fulfillment
deals with subjective phenomena experienced in the present
Person Centered Therapy
center on the patients goals and ways of solving problems
Therapist must have authenticity, genuineness. Unconditional positive regard. Must also be empathic understanding
integrate different and somtimes opposing aspects of personality into a unified sense of self
recognizes the importance of awareness, acceptance and expression of feelings
goal is to help people find meaning in their lives
goal is to focus on specific problems that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
identify and assess the problem, establish goals, then design and implement a strategy for behavior change.
uses a learning framework to determine the factors that precede the problem, their severity and their consequences
confront their frears and show there are no consequences
taught to relax as gradually exposed to feared object/ situation in a stepwise manner
can experience two conflicting responses simultaneously
patients immediately experience their greatest fear, with no aversive consequences
therapists prevent patients from performing their typical avoidence behaviors
research procedure for examining the effectiveness of isolated components of a treatment
model a problematic situation and then guide the patient through steps to learn how to cope with it unassisted
goal is to use reward and punishment to shape behavior
desirable behaviors are rewarded with tokens that the patients can exchange for tangible rewards
uses punishment to decrease frequency of undesirable behaviors
Cognitive Behavioral Therapies
goal is to attempt to replace maladaptive or irrational thoughts with more adaptive rational ones
core assumptions are that thoughts can be identified and evaluated, that thoughts are the key player in psychological functioning and that irrational beliefs can be repalced by more rational adaptive cognitions.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
goal is to promote logical beleifs, flexable beliefs with realistic expectations for self and others
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
goal is to emphasize identificaiton and modification of automatic, negative thoughts and long held negative beliefs.
sampling bits and pieces from other approaches
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
treatment for suicide risk patients, emphasizes two sides, integration.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
coming to accept emotions/ circumstances
goal is to use medication to treat psychological problems
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
- brief electrical pulses to the brain which produce a seizure and treat serious psychological problems.
Vagus Nerve Stimulation
electrical pulses to stimulate vagus nerve, which may increase serotonin and blood flow.
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