Psych: Chapter 9 Life Span Development
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A period of special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shapes the capacity for future development
The inability to consider another's point of view, which Piaget considered a hallmark of preoperational stage
The third, and final stage of prenatal development (8 weeks to birth), characterized by rapid weight gain in the fetus and the fine detailing of body organs and systems
Prejudice or discrimination against an individual based on physical age
A strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time
An innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attachment to the first, large moving object seen
How do teratogens affect the individual?
They have to pass through the placental barrier
Environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal development. Anything bad that the mother can do that can cause damage.
Biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
Piaget's 1st stage (0-2 years old) in which schemas are developed through sensory and motor activities
2nd stage of the prenatal development that begins after uterine implantation and lasts through the 8th week
Piaget's 4th stage (11 years+) characterized by abstract and hypothetical thinking
Formal Operational Stage
When the sperm fuses with the egg
Research that measures people of various ages at one point in time and gives info about age differences
The study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from birth to death
Piaget's third stage (7-11 years). The child can perform mental operations on concrete objects and understand reversibility and conservation, but abstract thinking is not yet present
Concrete Operational Stage
Understanding that certain physical characteristics (such as volume) remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes.
In Piaget's theory, adjusting old schemas and developing new ones to better fit with new info.
An infant's understanding that objects or people continue to exist even why they cannot be directly see, heard or touched
A combination of birth defects, including organ deformities and mental, motor, or growth retardation, that results from maternal alcohol abuse
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Absorbing new information into existing schemas
Development governed by automatic, genetically predetermined signals
Research that measures a single individual or group of individuals over an extended period and gives info about age changes (life span changes)
1st stage of prenatal development that begins with conception and ends with implantation in the uterus (first 2 weeks)
Piaget's second stage, (2-7 years) characterized by the ability to employ significant language and to think symbolically
What is poorly developed during birth?
Gradual, inevitable changes vs. changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect
Believed infants begin at a cognitively "primitive" level and progress in distinct stages
Most basic unit of intellect, which acts as patterns that organize interactions with the environment (Piaget)
Physical Characteristics of FAS?
- Smooth Upper Lip (philtrum)
- Less brain mass
- Underdeveloped frontal lobe
Non-Physical characteristics of FAS?
- Lowered IQ (under 70)
- Not mentally retarded
- Fine muscle movement "pinching"
What are the effects of smoking cigarettes while pregnant?
These are examples of:
Lack of eyelids
Excess digits of finger or toes
What is the normal curve for IQ?
What is Down's Syndrome caused by?
What are the 4 physical characteristics of Down's Syndrome?
- Protruding tongue
- Rounded Head
- Upturned nose
- Blank stare
When is someone most likely to have a miscarriage?
How do we know a child can see?
If you show them the same image over and over again they turn their head away, they get bored
When rubbing a baby's cheek and it turns its head and opens it's mouth in search of a nipple for food
3 flaws of Piaget's theory?
- Children don't develop the same way
- Culture wasn't a factor
- Longitudinal/Case study of a few children
Child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, and is happy when mother returns
Strange situation procedure; identified three types of attachment in children
Child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves
Child is upset as mother leaves; cries uncontrollably and mother provides no real sense of comfort when she returns
Which level of attachment is healthiest?
What are the three types of Parenting styles?
3 Levels of Attachment?
- Securley attached
4 Stages of Cognitive?
- Concrete Operational
- Formal Operational
Object Permanence and Stranger Anxiety
Egocentrism, Animistic thinking, and lack of conservation
Gain of conservation, simple operations and language development
Abstract logical thought
They set little rules, boundaries, and they don't care. The worst parenting style
Overly strict, no reason as to why. 2nd worst parenting style
They are strict, but it's for a good reason. Best parenting style
3 Major Research issues in developmental psychology
- Nature vs. Nurture
- Continuity vs. Stages
- Stability vs. Change
Heredity vs. Environment
Nature vs. Nurture
Continuous and gradual vs. Periods of abrupt changes and then periods of little change
Continuity vs. Stages
Characteristics maintained vs. Characteristics different
Stability vs. Change
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