Biology Test Review

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Anonymous
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243707
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Biology Test Review
Updated:
2013-10-29 17:27:45
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biology morgan niles
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Scientific Methods-Biochemistry
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  1. Prokayote Cell
    • No nucleus and no membrane bound organelles
    • Ex: bacteria
  2. Eukaryote Cell
    Nucleus and membrane bound organelles
  3. Sexual Reproduction
    • (+)Produces gentically different offspring
    • 1 disease not likely to kill all
    • (-)have to find mate
  4. Asexual Reproduction
    • (-)Produces identical individuals
    • 1 disease could wipe out population
    • (+)no mate
  5. Autotroph
    • Make own energy (from sunlight)
    • Ex: plant
  6. Heterotroph
    Consume others
  7. Homeostasis
    • stay in balance
    • Ex: sweat/shiver/sugar levels
  8. Adaptations
    • Physical: part of body
    • Behavioral: the way they act
  9. Growth of cells
    More cells
  10. Development of cells
    specialized cell (differientation)
  11. Organization
    cell>tissue>organ>organ system>organism
  12. Reasons cell differientation doesn't work correctly
    Mutation
  13. When you add an enzyme catalyst to the reactants it reduces the activation energy to make products.
  14. Draw water molecule
  15. 4 Reasons H2O is important
    • transport
    • chemical reactions
    • specific heat
    • controls temp.
  16. Solute
    being dissolved (particles)
  17. Solvent
    Dissolves particles
  18. Equation for photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  19. Equation for Cellular Respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
  20. Covalent Bonds
    share electrons
  21. Ionic Bonds
    held together by opposite charges
  22. Adhesion
    stick to a solid
  23. Cohesion
    water sticks to water (hydrogen bond)
  24. Buffers
    Prevent pH from changing
  25. Importance of Carbohydrates
    Energy
  26. Molecular formula of glucose
    C6H12O6
  27. Importance of glucose
    main source of energy
  28. Four different polysaccharides
    • starch (plants store excess glucose)
    • glycogen (animals store excess glucose)
    • chitin (exoskeleton)
    • cellulose (cell of plant-fiber)
  29. Importance of Proteins
    • structural (muscle)
    • functional (enzymes)
  30. How enymes work
    Substrate fits into active site of enzymes like a key and the enzyme changes shape causing substrate to break into products
  31. Importance of consuming lipids
    • stored energy
    • cell membrane
  32. Key characteristic of Lipids and characteristic's importance
    • Doesn't dissolve in H2O
    • Keeps things from getting inside or outside
    • Makes up cell membrane
  33. Momomer of Carbs
    monosaccharide
  34. Monomer of Proteins
    Amino Acids
  35. Monomer of Lipids
    Fatty Acids
  36. Monomer of Nucleic Acids
    nucleotides
  37. Importance of 2 Nucleic Acids
    • DNA: genetic blueprint
    • RNA: makes proteins- AA
  38. Types of Lipids
    • Saturated/Unsaturated
    • Wax
    • Steroids
    • Phospholipids
  39. Cilia
    • small hair-like structure
    • used for movement
    • Ex: humans/paramecium
  40. Organelle
    structure within a cell that carries out a specific function
  41. Endocytosis
    when a cell takes in a large particle
  42. Diffusion
    movement of particles from high to low concentration
  43. Osmosis
    movement of water from high to low concentration
  44. Why cells are the size they are
    Depends on surface area vs. volume
  45. Why Cells are shaped a specific way
    • Function of a cell
    • Ex: skin cell (flat- surface)
  46. Robert Hooke
    • discovered first cell
    • dead cork
  47. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    • 1st living cell
    • moving in pond water
  48. Robert Brown
    • 1st organelle
    • nucleus (biggest organelle)
  49. Cell membrane
    • selectively premeable
    • fluid mosaic model
  50. Ribosomes
    make proteins
  51. Rough ER
    transports ribosomes
  52. Smooth ER
    transports carbs and lipids
  53. Mitochondria
    • makes ATP
    • cristae (membrane)
    • own DNA
    • glucose to ATP
    • Both cells
  54. Vacuole
    storage
  55. Nucleus
    • Command center
    • directs all organelles
  56. Golgi Apparatus (Bodies)
    • "Post office"
    • package, process, secrete
  57. Vesicles
    Transport
  58. Cloroplast (Plastids)
    • absorb sunlight to make sugar
    • own DNA
    • sunlight to glucose
    • plant cells only
  59. Cilia
    • movement
    • hair-like structure
  60. Nucleolus
    make ribosomes
  61. Lysosomes
    • contain digestive enzymes
    • Ex: food, waste, orld cell
    • disease- Tay Sach syndrome
    • (star-shaped)
  62. Cell Wall
    • Plant only
    • supports and protects
  63. Flagella
    • movement
    • long-whip
    • Ex: sperm
  64. Hypertonic solution
    solute concentration is hight in the solution than in cell
  65. Hypotonic solution
    solute concentration is lower in solution than in the cell
  66. Isotonic solution
    solute concentration is equal inside and outside of cell
  67. Passive transport
    • doesn't use energy
    • High to Low
    • no ATP
  68. Active Transport
    • uses energy
    • Low to High
    • ATP
  69. Facilitated Diffusion
    • use protein to hel go across membrane
    • high-low
  70. Sodium Potassium Pump
    every two potassium for every 3 sodium

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