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What is an atom?
The smallest piece of matter that still retains the property of the element.
What are the 3 main particles in an atom? Where are they located and give their charge and mass?
- Proton- inside the nucleus; positive; mass of 1
- Neutron- inside the nucleus; nuetral charge; mass of 1
- Electron- surrounding the nucleus; negative charge; mass of 0
Why are atoms naturally neutral?
Their charges cancel out.
What is atomic number?
Atomic number is the number of the element on the periodic table, and it is also the same as the number of protons.
What did Democritus do and when?
400 B.C. proposed the idea that atoms make up all substances. Theory remained unchanged till 1900's.
What did Aristotle do and when?
400 B.C. proposed incorrect theory that matter is uniform throughout.
What did Dalton do and when?
1800's prooved atoms exist.
What did Rutherford do and when?
1911 proposed that all the mass and positive charges of an atom is in central atomic nucleus surrounded by electrons.
What did Bohr do and when?
1913 hypothesized that electrons travel in fixed orbits around an atoms nucleus.
Describe the Modern Atomic Model
- 1904 atoms were attached to a positively charged sphere.
- 1911 all mass and pos. charges are in nucleus surrounded by electrons.
- 1913 nucleus contained pos. and neutral charges and surrounded by electrons traveling in fixed orbit.
- Currently same as 1913, but electrons do not travel in fixed orbit.
What is the mass number of an element, and how can it be used to calculate the number of neutrons in an atom?
The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons added together. To get neutrons subtract number of protons or the atomic number from the mass number.
What are isotopes and how are they related to average atomic mass?
An isotope is when an atom of the same element has a different number of neutrons. It is related to average atomic mass, since most atoms have more than one isotope, AAM is the weighted-average mass of the mixture of isotopes.
What are valence electrons and what is the relationship between column numbers and the number of valence electrons?
Valence electrons are the electrons on the outermost energy level, and for columns 1,2,13,14,15,16,17, and 18 the last number of the column number is the number of valence electrons.
How are elements arranged on the periodic table?
Arranged in Periods and Columns, Periods they are in have same number of energy levels and Columns have similar properties.
What are the horizontal rows on the periodic table called?
What are the vertical columns on the periodic table called?
What is special about Column 18 on the Periodic Table?
Group 18 is relatively unreactive, and they all have complete outer levels.
What are the two main gases in our atmosphere? In what percentages?
What makes up remainder of atmosphere?
Most of the remaining 1% is inactive gas, argon, and water vapor. And the small remaining portion is a mixture of trace gases.
How is today's atmosphere different than 4 billion years ago, what is mainly responsible?
Used to contain mostly hydrogen and helium. They were lost and replaced by volcanic eruptions producing water vapor and Carbon Dioxide, Photosynthesis produced oxygen and ozone was created. Volcanoes mainly responsible.
Four Layers of Atmosphere, Outer-Inner:
- Thermosphere- very low in density, does not affect weather.
- Mesosphere- same as thermosphere.
- Stratosphere- extremely dry and rich in ozone.
- Troposphere- where most weather occurs.
Which layer is hottest, coldest, densest?
- Densest- Troposphere
- Coldest- Thermosphere
- Hottest- Troposphere
What is ozone layer, where is it, and what is its purpose?
Located above stratosphere, and it protects earth from Ultra-Violent rays.
What is the Ionosphere?
Between stratosphere and exosphere, 80-400km above earth's surface.
Explain difference between greenhouse effect and global warming.
- Greenhouse Effect- refers to the re-emission of infrared radiation back to earths surface.
- Global Warming- an increase in the average global temperature of earth.
Difference between respiration and photosynthesis?
- Respiration- produces carbon dioxide and water vapor.
- Photosynthesis- uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen.
Name the 3 types of clouds, and relatively where they are found in the sky.
- Cumulus- flat and enlongated, form from air parcels. Located at about 5,000 ft.
- Stratus- form from layers of air gently rising, produce drizzle or a lot of rain. Located at about 5,000 ft.
- Cumulonimbus- forms from unstable air, brings intense rain. Located at about 7,000 ft.
What does Nimbo/Nimbus tell you about a cloud?
It is a rain cloud.
What type of cloud would you find along a warm front?
Stratus Clouds or fog.
What type of cloud would you find along a cold front?
Cumulus Clouds and showers/thunderstorms.
What creates wind?
When air goes from High Pressure to Low Pressure, wind is created.
Name the 4 major layers of the earth from outermost to innermost.
Crust, Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Upper Mantle, Lower Mantle, Outer Core, then Inner Core.
a weaker, plastic like layer upon which earth's lisospheric plates move.
made up of rocly material of the crust and upper most mantle.
Who is Alfred Wegener?
In 1915, he proposed a hypothesis that suggested that Earth's plates once were part of a large super-continent. This continent was called Pangea.
What is theory of plate tectonics?
a theory originating in 1960's. States earths consists of about 12 major plates and many minor plates that are composed of a rigid layer of the upper mantle & crust. There are 3 main types of plate boundaries.
Give evidence supporting plate tectonics:
- Sea Floor Spreading- Magma from mantle is forced upward because of low density. This causes the crust to crack (fault) and move apart.
- Matching plants, fossils, and animals on different continents, and puzzle peice fit.
What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
Divergent, Convergent, and Transform.
Define Divergent Boundary
at a mid-ocean ridge magma rises along a faulted rift valley, spreads, and cools to form new oceanic crust.
Define Convergent Boundary
when plates collide and come together.
Define Transform Boundary
horizontal motion of lithosphere.
What is a convection current?
the transfer of heat by the mass movement of heated particles into an area of cooler fluid.
What are seismic waves?
shock waves in solid rock, created by earthquakes.
What are primary waves?
also called p-waves, primary waves cause particles in a material to undergo a push-pull type motion. they can travel through all kinds of matter.
What are secondary waves?
also called s-waves, secondary waves are body waves that travel more slowly than primary waves. sometimes called shear waves, s-waves cause particles to move perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. s-waves can only travel through solids.
What are surface waves?su
surface waves cause a rolling motion much like ocean waves. can be an up-down rolling motion and also a side-to-side motion.
What is an earthquakes's focus?
an earthquakes point of origin.
What is an earthquake's epicenter?
the point on earth's surface directly above the focus.
What does the richter scale measure?
The magnitude of an earthquake.
What does the mercalli scale mesaure?
Mercalli scale measures the amount of ground shaking and the damage it caused.
What is the difference between magma and lava?
Magma is the molten material beneath Earth's crust, once it is pushed upward and comes out the volcanoe, it becomes lava.
What are the 3 main types of volcanoes?
- Cinder Cone- gas rich magma, explosively
- Shield- composed of layers of lava
- Composite- composed of alternating layers
What are hot spots?
Hot spots are volcanically active sites that arise in places where large quantities of magma move to the surface.
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